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   2020| February  | Volume 10 | Issue 2  
    Online since January 15, 2020

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One-pot synthesis of silver nanocomposites from Achyranthes aspera: An eco-friendly larvicide against Aedes aegypti L.
Aarti Sharma, Pushplata Tripathi, Sarita Kumar
February 2020, 10(2):54-64
Objective: To formulate silver nanocomposites from Achyranthes aspera leaf extracts and evaluate its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Methods: The silver nanocomposites were synthesized from Achyranthes aspera leaf extracts. The process was optimized and traced through UV-visible and photon correlation spectroscopy. The larvicidal potential of silver nanocomposites of Achyranthes aspera leaf extracts was assessed against the early fourth instars of Aedes aegypti and three non-target organisms. Furthermore, the most effective and eco-safe nanocomposite was characterized by different biophysical techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Results: The formulated silver nanocomposites exhibited efficient larvicidal efficacy against Aedes aegypti. Bioassay with silver nanocomposites formulated using different AgNO 3 concentrations (3, 4, and 5 mM) revealed respective LC50 values of 37.570, 6.262 and 1.041 μg/mL; 5.819, 1.412 and 0.489 μg/mL; and 5.519, 1.302 and 0.267 μg/mL after 24, 48 and 72 h. The silver nanocomposites with 4 mM AgNO3 were selected for characterization. SEM and TEM analysis revealed spherical, poly-dispersed structure with varied diameters of 1-25 nm. The XRD analysis established the crystalline and face-centred-cubic structure of silver nanocomposites with the maximum peak at a 2θ value of 37.42°. The EDX pattern showed the presence of Ag, O and C in the nanocomposites in their order of weight%. The FT-IR displayed visibly distinct peaks in different ranges demonstrating the intricacy of silver nanocomposites. In addition, the lethal concentrations of silver nanocomposites of Achyranthes aspera leaf extracts against Aedes aegypti larvae were non-toxic to non-target organisms including Gambusia affinis, Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa. Conclusions: Silver nanocomposites synthesized with leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera provide a cost-effective and eco-safe alternative to conventional insecticides, and can be utilized as a potent mosquito nano-larvicide.
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In vitro anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and in vivo anti-arthritic properties of stem bark extracts from Nauclea pobeguinii (Rubiaceae) in rats
Tsafack Eric Gonzal, Djuichou Nguemnang Stephanie Flore, Atsamo Albert Donatien, Nana Yousseu William, Tadjoua Tchoumbou Herve, Matah Marthe Mba Vanessa, Mbiantcha Marius, Ateufack Gilbert
February 2020, 10(2):65-77
Objective: To explore the immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-arthritic activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Nauclea pobeguinii stem bark. Methods: For in vitro assays, the production of reactive oxygen species (chemiluminescence technique), the proliferation of T cells (liquid scintillation counter method), as well as the inhibition of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, protein denaturation, and free radicals [DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition methods] were evaluated. For in vivo assays, a polyarthritis model was induced by complete Freund’s adjuvant in rats. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of Nauclea pobeguinii stem bark were administered orally at 150 and 300 mg/kg. After 28 days of treatment, the total blood was taken to quantify the hematological parameters and the serum was used to evaluate the biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, phenylalnine ammonialyase, and proteins) and oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and NO), and then the knee joint was removed for histological analysis. Results: The extracts of Nauclea pobeguinii significantly reduced the production of intra- and extracellular reactive oxygen species and decreased T cell proliferation. They had an inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and protein denaturation, and both extracts had antioxidant capacity on DPPH, ABTS and NO. Both extracts alleviated joint inflammation and pain sensitivity after complete Freund’s adjuvant injection, reduced alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, NO and malondialdehyde levels, increased protein concentration, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione activity, and restored the cytoarchitecture of the joint after complete Freund’s adjuvant injection. Conclusions: The aqueous and methanolic extracts of Nauclea pobeguinii have immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-arthritic properties.
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Ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC3 cells via modulating a ROS-dependent pathway
Eun Ok Choi, Hyesook Lee, Cheol Park, Gi-Young Kim, Hee-Jae Cha, Suhkmann Kim, Heui-Soo Kim, You-Jin Jeon, Hye Jin Hwang, Yung Hyun Choi
February 2020, 10(2):78-86
Objective: To investigate whether ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme could induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC3 cells. Methods: Cell viability was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured using flow cytometry in PC3 cells. DNA damage was assessed by nuclear staining and DNA fragmentation assay. Expressions of apoptosis-associated proteins were determined by Western blotting assays. Activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 were determined by colorimetric assay. Moreover, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was detected using a flow cytometer and fluorescence microscope. Results: Treatment of PC3 cells with ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme inhibited proliferation, which was associated with induction of apoptosis, and accompanied by increased expression of Fas, Fas-ligand (FasL), Bax and tBid, and decreased expression of Bcl-2. In addition, ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme reduced c-Flip expression and activated caspase-8, -9 and -3, resulting in an increase in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)cleavage. However, in the presence of a pan-caspase inhibitor, ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis were significantly attenuated. Ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme also destroyed the integrity of mitochondria due to the loss of MMP, leading to cytosolic release of cytochrome c. Moreover, the levels of ROS were markedly increased by treatment with ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme, which was significantly suppressed by the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Further investigation of whether ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme-induced apoptosis was related to the generation of ROS was conducted and the results showed that N-acetyl-L-cysteine fully blocked ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme-induced apoptotic events including loss of MMP, activation of caspase-3, the cytosolic release of cytochrome c and cytotoxicity. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme have chemopreventive potential via induction of ROS-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme may be useful for developing effective and selective natural sources to inhibit cancer cell proliferation.
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Antioxidant and antibacterial activities and identification of bioactive compounds of various extracts of Caulerpa racemosa from Algerian coast
Louiza Belkacemi, Mahmoud Belalia, Ali C Djendara, Youcef Bouhadda
February 2020, 10(2):87-94
Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities and to identify the volatile bioactive compounds present in different crude extracts of the seaweed Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea. Methods: Caulerpa racemosa harvested from the intertidal zone of Mostaganem coast (N 35°54’37.94”, E 0°3’17.37”) was subjected to Soxhlet extraction using methanol, chloroform, and hexane solvents. Antioxidant properties were assessed by using 2,2’-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and β-carotene bleaching assays. The antibacterial activity was evaluated on six standard bacterial strains using the agar disc diffusion method. The GC-MS analysis was performed using non-polar and polar capillary columns. Results: The chloroform extract of Caulerpa racemosa exhibited higher contents of polyphenols [(123.91±1.46) mg gallic acid equivalent/ g dry extract] and tannins [(59.28±5.43) mg catechin equivalent/ g dry extract] (P<0.001) and was the most effective in scavenging DPPH [(1.98±0.08) mg/mL] and ABTS [(1.66±0.05) mg/mL] radicals. The hexane extract displayed the best antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, producing inhibition zones of (11.16±0.76), (9.00±0.00) and (9.33±1.15) mm, respectively. The l-(+)-ascorbic acid 2,6- dihexadecanoate and 4-hydroxy-2methylproline were among the most abundant volatile compounds. Besides conventional fatty acids, cis-10-heptadecenoic acid, nonahexacontanoic acid, and dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy- were identified. Two phytosterols were identified: stigmast-5-en-3-ol- (12.9%) and stigmast-5-en-3.beta.-ol, (24S)- (4.57%). Conclusions: The preliminary identification of the volatile compounds reveals the presence of some new bioactive components not reported previously in Caulerpa racemosa from other geographical areas. Some of these compounds possess an interesting potential for pharmaceutical/nutraceutical applications.
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MicroRNA deregulation and cancer and medicinal plants as microRNA regulator
Nathan Shanmugapriya, Sreenivasan Sasidharan
February 2020, 10(2):47-53
MircroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs with a length of approximately 20-22 nucleotides, which interact with their target mRNAs at 3’-untranslated region by partial pairing. The miRNA- mRNA interaction leads to induction of mRNA degradation and eventually translational inhibition. Thus, miRNAs play an important role in virtually all cellular processes, especially differentiation, proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. The deregulation of miRNAs may lead to serious diseases including cancer. There is mounting evidence demonstrating the participation of miRNA regulation during carcinogenesis. In this review, we discuss an updated miRNA biogenesis, mechanisms involved in their deregulation, and their role in cancer development. This review also summarizes updated information on potential medicinal plants which regulate miRNA expression as a promising molecular miRNA therapeutic approach for cancers.
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