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   2020| October  | Volume 10 | Issue 10  
    Online since August 3, 2020

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Chemical characterization, docking studies, anti-arthritic activity and acute oral toxicity of Convolvulus arvensis L. leaves
Uzma Saleem, Shingraf Zaib, Sana Khalid, Fareeha Anwar, Muhammad Furqan Akhtar, Bashir Ahmad
October 2020, 10(10):442-451
Objective: To evaluate acute oral toxicity and anti-arthritic activity of the methanolic extract of Convolvulus arvensis L. leaves. Methods: Safety was assessed by acute oral toxicity (OECD 425) study. Anti-arthritic activity was explored by in vitro (inhibition of protein denaturation) and in vivo (Complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis and carrageenan-induced inflammation) methods. Antioxidant potential was determined by assessing ferric reducing power, DPPH inhibition, and H2O2 scavenging assays. Furthermore, molecular docking was done to check interactions between the plant constituents and cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). Quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid, and vanillic acid were quantified by HPLC and eight compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis. Results: No mortality and abnormality in biochemical parameters were observed in the toxicity study. Histological analysis of vital organs also supported these biochemical results. The in vitro and in vivo studies showed that the methanolic extract of leaves of Convolvulus arvensis exhibited dose-dependent anti-arthritic and anti-oxidant potential. Molecular docking showed better interactions of plant compounds with cyclooxygenases as compared to standard ibuprofen. Conclusions: Convolvulus arvensis exhibits strong anti-arthritic activity, justifying the traditional use of the herbal drug.
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Anti-diabetic properties and bioactive compounds of Teucrium polium L.
Ali Akbar Asghari, Amin Mokhtari-Zaer, Saeed Niazmand, Kathleen Mc Entee, Maryam Mahmoudabady
October 2020, 10(10):433-441
Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease with considerable morbidity and mortality. Untreated or improperly-treated diabetes can be associated with several long-term complications that necessitate an effective way to manage diabetes. Due to the side effects of synthetic glucose-lowering agents, alternative therapeutic modalities such as medicinal plants have attracted notable attention. Teucrium polium L. is a medicinal herb with antioxidant, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, and hypoglycemic properties. In vitro and in vivo studies have been conducted to characterize the anti-diabetic properties of Teucrium polium L. and its bioactive compounds. We conducted a literature study using Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar including the keywords “diabetes” and “Teucrium polium”. We also scanned all the references cited by the retrieved articles. According to this review, Teucrium polium administration displayed anti-diabetic effects by targeting different mechanisms and pathways, such as enhancement of insulin secretion and insulin level, improvement of oxidative damage, regeneration of pancreatic β-cells, and promotion of glucose uptake in muscle tissues by increasing GLUT-4 translocation as well as inhibiting α-amylase activity. Although Teucrium polium has been widely regarded as a traditional method, the pharmacological studies on anti-diabetic effects are not sufficient, most studies are either in-vivo or in-vitro. The preclinical and clinical studies are further required to confirm the efficacy of Teucrium polium.
  640 364 -
Mucus from different fish species alleviates carrageenan-induced inflammatory paw edema in rats
Mustafa Hitit, Orhan Corum, Mehmet Ozbek, Kamil Uney, Ertugrul Terzi, Gokhan Arslan, AY Sonmez
October 2020, 10(10):452-459
Objective: To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of mucus obtained from different fish species on the carrageenan-induced acute paw edema in rats. Methods: Forty-two rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Acute paw edema was induced by 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan, and a single dose of diclofenac and lyophilized mucus (25 mg/kg) of rainbow trout, brook trout, European sea bass, and gilthead sea bream were administered to rats through gastric gavage 1 h before carrageenan treatment. Rat paws were measured before and 1-4 h after carrageenan treatment. The mRNA expressions of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β), antioxidant markers (catalase and superoxide dismutase), and COX-2 were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The histopathological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: The inhibition percentage of carrageenan-induced paw edema by different fish mucus ranged from 52.46% to 74.86% at 4 h. Histopathological evaluation showed that all fish mucus diminished carrageenan-induced edema and inflammatory cell infiltration. The upregulation of IL-1β mRNA induced by carrageenan was decreased by the mucus of rainbow trout and gilthead sea bream while an increase in the expression of IL-6 mRNA was reduced by the mucus of rainbow trout, brook trout, and gilthead sea bream. In addition, the mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase was higher in the rainbow trout mucus group than the carrageenan group. Conclusions: Mucus obtained from different fish species may have anti-inflammatory effects.
  427 213 -
Anti-MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity of Salsola komarovii Iljin extract and its solvent fractions
Jung-Ha Kil, Fatih Karadeniz, Ga Hyun Yu, Hojun Kim, Junse Kim, Jung Hwan Oh, Jung Im Lee, Chang-Suk Kong, Youngwan Seo
October 2020, 10(10):460-469
Objective: To investigate matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory effect of Salsola komarovii Iljin, an edible halophyte with health beneficial effects. Methods: Salsola komarovii crude extracts (SKI), and solvent (n-hexane, 85% aq. MeOH, n-BuOH, and H2O) fractionated extracts of SKI were prepared. Gelatin zymography was carried out to observe MMP enzymatic activity. The release of the MMP enzymes was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of MMPs in mRNA and protein level were investigated by polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunoblotting, respectively. Results: SKI and SKI fractions inhibited active MMP-2 and MMP-9 amount in the treated cell culture medium. Also, SKI suppressed the release of MMP-2 and MMP-9 from stimulated HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Furthermore, SKI suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. SKI fractions showed parallel effects except for H2O fraction which did not yield any significant MMP inhibitory effect. Among fractions, 85% aq. MeOH was the most active fraction to inhibit both the enzymatic effect and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Conclusions: SKI may contain potential MMP release inhibitory compounds. Salsola komarovii is a promising source of compounds against MMP and could be utilized in the development of antitumor agents.
  413 190 -
Rice bran hydrolysates induce immunomodulatory effects by suppression of chemotaxis, and modulation of cytokine release and cell-mediated cytotoxicity
Suphanthip Phusrisom, Laddawan Senggunprai, Auemduan Prawan, Sarinya Kongpetch, Upa Kukongviriyapan, Supawan Thawornchinsombut, Ronnachai Changsri, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan
October 2020, 10(10):470-478
Objective: To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of rice bran hydrolysates on cultured immune cells and their underlying mechanism. Methods: Rice bran hydrolysates were prepared from pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) by hydrothermolysis and protease digestion. Rice bran hydrolysates were assayed for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Cell proliferation of Jurkat, THP-1 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Chemotaxis was evaluated by transwell chamber methods. Immunoadherence of THP-1 was performed on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Cytokine released from PBMC was measured by ELISA assay kits. Lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity was carried out on KKU-452 cells. Proteins associated with immunomodulation were analyzed by Western immunoblotting assay. Results: Rice bran hydrolysates were rich in phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid, catechin, quercetin, and quercetin glycosides. Rice bran hydrolysates suppressed phytohemagglutinin (PHA)- stimulated proliferation of PBMC and Jurkat cells, chemotaxis of Jurkat and THP-1 cells, and immunoadherence of THP-1 on HUVEC cultured cells. The cellular mechanism of rice bran hydrolysates involved the activation of AMPK as well as suppression of mTOR, NF-κB and VCAM-1. Rice bran hydrolysates potentiated PBMC on the PHA-stimulated release of IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-4, and enhanced PHA-induced non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity on KKU-452 cancer cells. Conclusions: The immunomodulatory effect of phytochemicals derived from rice bran hydrolysates suggests its therapeutic potential for further investigation.
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