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   2018| August  | Volume 8 | Issue 8  
    Online since August 23, 2018

 
 
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BASIC RESEARCH
Anticancer potential of Alternanthera sessilis extract on HT-29 human colon cancer cells
Sivapragasam Gothai, Katyakyini Muniandy, Norhaizan Mohd Esa, Suresh Kumar Subbiah, Palanisamy Arulselvan
August 2018, 8(8):394-402
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.239427  
Objective: To identify the bioactive extracts from Alternanthera sessilis and investigate its cytotoxicity potential against colon cancer cells, HT-29. Methods: This study examined the effects of three parts (aerial, leaf, stem) of whole plant on HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. Three different extracts from the plant parts were prepared by maceration technique using 80% ethanol. The anticancer activities were determined using MTT, clonogenic, cell motility and AOPI assay. The chemical composition profiling was analyzed by GC-MS. Results: Among three plant part extracts, leaf extract greatly suppressed the growth of colon cancer cells in time and dosage-dependent manner, followed by aerial and stem. The cytotoxicity results were rationalized with clonogenic, cell motility and AO/PI assay, where extract showed the most active activity compared to aerial and stem extracts. GC-MS analysis of leaf extract showed there were various recognized anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds. Conclusions: Amid the screened extracts, the leaf extract exhibits the credible cytotoxic, anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity and hence, our findings call for additional research to conclude the active compounds and their mechanisms determining the apoptotic activity.
  4,700 717 4
Anti-quorum sensing and anti-biofilm formation activities of plant extracts from South Korea
Okhee Choi, Dong-Wan Kang, Su Kyung Cho, Yeyeong Lee, Byeongsam Kang, Juyoung Bae, Seunghoe Kim, Jeong Hoon Lee, Seung Eun Lee, Jinwoo Kim
August 2018, 8(8):411-417
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.239429  
Objective: To investigate anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and anti-biofilm formation (anti- BF) activities of the ethanol extracts of 388 plants. Methods: The anti-QS activity of the plant extracts was evaluated by disc-diffusion assays using the bio-reporter strain, Chromobacterium violaceum CV017. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 9610, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, which possess QS systems, were used to evaluate the anti- BF activity of the plant extracts. Results: Among 388 plant extracts, the Cornus controversa (C. controversa) and Cynanchum wilfordii extracts exhibited the strongest anti-QS activity. The C. controversa extract exhibited anti-BF activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia enterocolitica and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, whereas the Cynanchum wilfordii extract exhibited no anti-BF activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the C. controversa extract suppressed soft rot of cabbage. Conclusions: The C. controversa extract inhibits bacterial QS and BF, and is capable of controlling soft rot. Therefore, this extract has potential for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections and for the development of alternatives to antibiotics.
  3,242 488 -
Phytochemical investigation, antioxidant and wound healing activities of Citrullus colocynthis (bitter apple)
Sateesh Chandra Gupta, Tusha Tripathi, Shravan Kumar Paswan, Annie G Agarwal, Chandana V Rao, Om P Sidhu
August 2018, 8(8):418-424
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.239430  
Objective: To undertake metabolite profiling of various plant parts of Citrullus colocynthis, and assess antioxidant and wound healing activities of fractions for therapeutical applications. Methods: Extracts from leaves, stem, root, fruit pulp and seeds were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. Variation in antioxidant potential was assayed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extract with highest antioxidant potential was subjected on in-vivo wound healing activity using excision wound model. Results: Metabolite profiling of Citrullus colocynthis identified 70 chemically diverse metabolites from different plant parts by using a combination of GC-MS and HPLC. Concentration of colocynthin, a principal active secondary metabolite, ranged from 3.15 mg/g dry weight to 242.00 mg/g dry weight, the lowest being in leaves and highest in fruit pulp. DPPH radical scavenging activity of free radical (IC50) ranged from 196.44 μg/mL in fruit pulp to 413.33 μg/mL in leaves tissues. Significant wound contraction and increase in hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue were observed with ointment formulated from methanolic extract of fruit pulp. Conclusions: The study indicates that the methanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit pulp when applied topically may promote wound contraction in rat model attributable to the accumulation of colocynthin. The high quantity of colocynthin (242.00 mg/g dry weight) and substantial concentration of 2,4-di-tert butyl phenol (3.2%), squalene (4.2%) and δ -tocopherol (2.5%) make this plant to provide new opportunities for development of medicinal, nutraceutical and dietary supplements with optimized functionality.
  2,655 543 3
Biomolecular changes and DNA targeting effect of sesamol in human lung adenocarcinoma (SK-LU-1) cells by FTIR microscopy
Boondaree Siriwarin, Natthida Weerapreeyakul, Waraporn Tanthanuch, Kanjana Thumanu
August 2018, 8(8):377-386
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.239425  
Objective: To investigate biomolecular alteration of sesamol on human lung adenocarcinoma (SK-LU-1) cells compared with cisplatin using Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FTIR). Methods: Cytotoxicity of sesamol was investigated against SK-LU-1 cells by using neutral red. DNA fragmentation and the cell cycle analysis were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry, respectively. The FTIR microscopy technique was applied to explore the changes in cellular biochemical compositions in cells treated with sesamol that the biochemical and biological assays cannot cover. The alkylating property was determined by 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine assay. Results: Sesamol and cisplatin exerted an antiproliferative effect at 48 h with respective IC50 values of 2.7 and 0.07 mM. Both induced apoptosis by causing DNA damage and accumulation of cell populations at sub-G1. FTIR microscopy and Principle Component Analysis clearly discriminated the sesamol- and cisplatin-treated cells from the untreated cells or control. A significant increase of total lipid content was found in cisplatin-treated cells. Conformational changes in the proteins secondary structure from the α -helix to the β -sheet were found in both sesamol- and cisplatin-treated cells, as well as significant reductions in relative DNA content of both compared to the control were observed, suggesting DNA damage. A shift in the peak position of DNA region provides insight on the DNA interactions. Conclusions: The non-alkylating effect of sesamol based on the nitrobenzyl pyridine assay delineates the non-covalent binding mode of sesamol on DNA. Hydrogen bonding is the binding mode of sesamol on DNA, while for cisplatin it was covalent and hydrogen bonding.
  2,207 390 6
Effect of crocin carotenoid on BDNF and CREB gene expression in brain ventral tegmental area of morphine treated rats
Marzieh Rezai, Mehdi Mahmoodi, Ayat Kaeidi, Mojgan Noroozi Karimabad, Alireza Khoshdel, Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh
August 2018, 8(8):387-393
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.239426  
Objective: To investigate the effect of crocin carotenoid on BNDF and CREB gene expression in the brain ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the serum level of BDNF in morphine-treated rats compared to control. Methods: In this study, 40 male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were used in 5 experimental groups: 1) non morphine treat rats (control); 2) non morphine-treated rats with 25 mg/kg crocin carotenoid (i.p., for 21 d); 3) morphine treated rats (10 mg/kg twice a day, s.c., 21 d); 4 and 5) morphine-treated rats with 12.5 and 25 mg/kg crocin carotenoid, respectively. By the end of research, BDNF and CREB expression was determined by real-time-PCR method. ELISA analysis was also applied for assessing the serum BDNF level. Results: The data indicated that morphine treatment could cause a significant decrease in BDNF and CREB gene expression (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively) in brain VTA as well as serum level of BDNF (P<0.01) in comparison to control group. Treatment with 25 mg/kg crocin carotenoid caused a significant enhancement in BDNF and CREF gene expression (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) and serum level of BDNF (P<0.01) in morphine-treated rats in comparison to morphine-treated group. Conclusions: Regarding to obtained results, crocin carotenoid can inhibit unfavorable effects of morphine on the neural system to some extent through enhancing BDNF and CREB gene expression in brain VTA and serum level of BDNF.
  2,067 352 4
Protective and therapeutic potentials of Dunaliella salina on aging-associated cardiac dysfunction in rats
Farouk K El-Baz, Gehad A Abdel Jaleel, Dalia O Saleh, Rehab A Hussein
August 2018, 8(8):403-410
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.239428  
Objective: To investigate the possible protective and/or therapeutic potentials of Dunaliella salina (D. salina) biomass, its carotenoid and polar fractions on cardiac dysfunction associated with D-galactose (D-GAL) induced aging in rats. Methods: Aging associated cardiac dysfunction was induced in rats by injection of D-GAL (200 mg/kg; i.p) for 8 weeks. D-GAL injected rats were treated with two regimens; protective regimen where D. salina biomass (250 mg/kg), its carotenoid (250 μg/kg) and polar (250 μg/kg) fractions were given orally for two weeks concurrently with D-GAL injection as well as treatment regimen where the three treatments were given orally for 28 consecutive days after D-GAL injection. Results: D-GAL injection for 8 weeks was accompanied with dramatic electrocardiographic changes as well as profound elevation in serum levels of homocysteine, creatinine kinase isoenzyme and lactate dehydrogenase in addition to the reduction of the cardiac content of glucose trasporter 4. D-GAL also induced reduction in cardiac superoxide dismutase activity and elevation of inducible nitric oxide synthetase and interleukin-6. On the other hand, oral administration of D. salina carotenoid fraction as well as the total biomass significantly attenuated the D-GAL-induced disturbances in the above mentioned parameters where the protective regimen appeared more successful in controlling the manifestations of cardiac dysfunction. The histopathological examination further emphasized the promising results. Besides, the HPLC analysis of the carotenoid fraction of D. salina revealed the presence of 2.31% β -carotene. Conclusions: D. salina carotenoid fraction as well as the total biomass ameliorate D-GAL-induced aging associated cardiac dysfunction which is attributed to the potent antioxidant activity of β -carotene.
  1,980 336 4