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   Table of Contents - Current issue
December 2020
Volume 10 | Issue 12
Page Nos. 523-568

Online since Monday, October 19, 2020

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Ferulic acid alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced depression-like behavior by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis p. 523
Xiu-Mei Bo, Ruo-Bing Yu, Sai-Jun Du, Rong-Li Zhang, Ling He
Objective: To identify the anti-depressive effect of ferulic acid (FA) in mice exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and explore its molecular mechanisms. Methods: The mice were divided into 5 groups as follows: Control, LPS, LPS + SP, LPS + FA, and LPS + FA + anisomycin. The LPS + FA and LPS + FA + anisomycin groups were administered with FA (100 mg/kg, i.p.) once daily continuously for 7 days, and the other groups received an equivalent volume of saline. On the 7th day, LPS (0.1 mg/mL, i.p.) was injected in all mice except the control group 30 min after FA or saline administration. The LPS + SP and LPS + FA + anisomycin groups were intravenously administered with SP600125 [c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor] (100 μL/ site, i.v.) and anisomycin (JNK activator) (100 μL/site, i.v.) 15 min before LPS, respectively. The depressive behaviors were assessed by open field test, sucrose preference test, and forced swimming test at 24 h post-LPS administration. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels in plasma were measured by ELISA. The levels of phospho-JNK, TNF-α, IL-1β, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c and caspase-3 were evaluated by Western blotting. Results: FA alleviated depression symptoms caused by LPS in mice, including increasing sucrose water consumption in sucrose preference test and reducing the immobility time in forced swimming test. FA could inhibit upregulated levels of phospho-JNK, TNF-α, and IL-1β. FA also markedly decreased Bax, caspase-3, and cytochrome c, and increased Bcl-2 levels. Besides, SP600125 showed neuroprotective effect similar to FA which was attenuated by anisomycin. Conclusions: FA attenuates inflammation and apoptosis by inhibiting LPS-induced activation of JNK to alleviate depressionlike behaviors.
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Role of higher levels of post-challenge antibodies in protective vaccination against Leishmania tropica infection of BALB/c mice p. 532
Mosayeb Rostamian, Hamid M Niknam
Objective: To study the role of antibodies in protection against Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) infection in the experimental model of BALB/c mice. Methods: BALB/c mice were vaccinated against L. tropica by soluble Leishmania antigen or recombinant L. tropica stress-inducible protein-1 (LtSTI1) of L. tropica, and against Leishmania major (L. major) by soluble Leishmania antigen. Monophosphoryl lipid A was used as an adjuvant. The L. tropica- or L. major-vaccinated mice were challenged by L. tropica or L. major, respectively. The levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies (IgG1 and IgG2a) were determined after vaccination and after challenge. Results: All vaccinated groups caused a higher antibody response in comparison with the control group. The L. major-vaccinated group showed lower IgG1 response than the control group after the challenge. Conversely, in L. tropica-vaccinated mice, the levels of antibodies were higher than the control group. Moreover, the group receiving rLtSTI1 and monophosphoryl lipid A showed higher levels of antibodies than those of the rLtSTI1 group. In vaccinated mice, antibody responses against L. tropica remained high until 16 weeks after the challenge. Conclusions: The higher levels of post-challenge antibodies are associated with protective vaccination against L. tropica infection of BALB/c mice. Our findings provide new insight into the association of antibody with vaccine-induced protective immunity against L. tropica infection. More studies are needed to clarify the role of antibody in protection against L. tropica.
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Coconut oil nanoemulsion attenuates methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice p. 540
Shaza A Alyamani, Mayson H Alkhatib, Faiza Abdu
Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of the coconut oil nanoemulsion against methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing Swiss albino mice. Methods: Forty mice were divided into four groups. Group I served as the untreated Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice while Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice in groups II-IV received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 mL/kg coconut oil nanoemulsion, 20 mg/kg methotrexate as well as 0.2 mL/kg coconut oil nanoemulsion mixed with 20 mg/kg methotrexate, respectively. The toxicities of the treatments were assessed by determining the complete blood count, performing the serum analysis for liver and kidney functions, evaluating the oxidative status and visualizing histological changes in the liver and kidney tissues. Results: Treatment with methotrexate and coconut oil nanoemulsion markedly diminished the liver parameters including aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin which were raised by methotrexate treatment (P < 0.05). Similarly, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, as the indicators of kidney function, were dramatically lowered in the combination treatment group compared to the methotrexate group (P < 0.05). In addition, treatment with methotrexate and coconut oil nanoemulsion reduced the malondialdehyde and increased catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, in the liver and kidney tissues (P < 0.05). The treatment with methotrexate and coconut oil nanoemulsion reduced white blood cell count and increased the hemoglobin amount (P < 0.05), but did not cause any change in platelets and red blood cell count. Conclusions: Coconut oil nanoemulsion as a nanocarrier has great potential in reducing the adverse side effects induced by methotrexate.
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Rotula aquatica Lour. inhibits growth and biofilm formation of clinically isolated uropathogenic Escherichia coli p. 547
A Vysakh, Sebastian Jose Midhun, Ninan Jisha, Kuriakose Jayesh, V Vijeesh, Mathew Jyothis, MS Latha
Objective: To evaluate the anti-bacteria! and anti-biofilm activity of ethyl acetate fraction of Rotula aquatica Lour. (EFRA) against clinically isolated uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Methods: In vitro antibacterial and anti-biofilm studies were employed. The antimicrobial activity of EFRA was assayed by the well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the active fraction were determined by Resazurin method. The time-kill kinetic assay, acridine orange-ethidium bromide staining, propidium iodide uptake assay, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis were done to evaluate the efficacy of EFRA in killing uropathogenic Escherichia coli. The anti-biofilm activity was determined by 3-[4,5- dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assay and specific biofilm formation assay. Results: The well diffusion assay of EFRA showed a very clear zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli BRL-17. The MIC and MBC of EFRA were 2.5 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL, respectively. The time-kill kinetic assay, fluorescence microscopic analysis, propidium iodide uptake assay, and SEM analysis displayed the effect of EFRA in killing the bacteria. The MTT assay and specific biofilm formation assay showed that EFRA prevented the formation of biofilms. Conclusions: The results of the present study confirm that EFRA could prevent bacterial growth and inhibit its biofilm formation.
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Potential bioactive phytochemicals, antioxidant properties and anticancer pathways of Nymphaea nouchali p. 555
Md. Nazim Uddin, Md. Abdus Samad, Md. Abu Zubair, Md. Zahurul Haque, Kanika Mitra, Tanzir Ahmed Khan, Md Amir Hossain, Ashikujaman Syed, Aklima Afroze
Objective: To investigate bioactive phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of Nymphaea nouchali and to explore its anticancer pathways by a network pharmacology approach. Methods: Using a spectrophotometer and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), we quantified bioactive phytochemicals in methanolic extract of Nymphaea nouchali tuber. The extracts were investigated for in vitro antioxidant properties. Targets of these bioactive phytochemicals were predicted and anticancer-associated pathways were analyzed by a network pharmacology approach. Moreover, we identified the predicted genes associated with cancer pathways and the hub genes in the protein-protein interaction network of predicted genes. Results: Quantitative results indicated the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total proanthocyanidins in the methanolic extract of Nymphaea nouchali tuber. HPLC-DAD analysis showed rutin (39.44 mg), catechin (39.20 mg), myricetin (30.77 mg), ellagic acid (11.05 mg), gallic acid (3.67 mg), vanillic acid (0.75 mg), rosmarinic acid (4.81 mg), p-coumaric acid (3.35 mg), and quercetin (0.90 mg) in 1 g of dry extract. The extract showed the radical scavenging activities of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azino- bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and N,N-dimethyl-p phenylenediamine. By using network pharmacology, we predicted 130 target genes associated with cancer pathways. The top hub genes (IL6, AKT1, EGFR, JUN, PTGS2, MAPK3, CASP3, and CXCL8) were also identified, which were associated with cancer pathways and interacted with bioactive phytochemicals of the methanolic extract of Nymphaea nouchali tuber. Conclusions: Our study provides insights into the mechanism of anticancer activities of the methanolic extract of Nymphaea nouchali tuber.
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Teicoplanin is a potential inhibitor of SARS CoV-2 replication enzymes: A docking study p. 563
Aatika Sadia, Muhammad Azam, Muhammad Asim Raza Basra
Objective: To explore potential inhibitors of viral enzymes of SARS CoV-2. Methods: The in-silico docked potential of anti-viral, antibiotic, and analgesic drugs were studied for inhibition of the nonstructural protein (NSP) 9, NSP3, and NSP15 of SARS CoV-2 using recent structural peculiarities of these enzymes, 3D optimized structures of drugs and algorithm-based ligand inhibitory potential. Results: Teicoplanin, azithromycin, and remdesivir potentially inhibited NSP9 (Dock-score 9 620, 5 472 and 6 252, respectively), NSP3 (Dock-score 9 846, 5 604 and 5 548, respectively) and NSP15 (Dock-score 10 960, 6414 and 6 002, respectively). Conclusions: Teicoplanin acts as a significant receptor antagonist and potentially inhibits the SARS CoV-2 enzymes.
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