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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 325-332

Antibiofilm activity of alpha-mangostin loaded nanoparticles against Streptococcus mutans


1 Institute of Biotechnology; Institute of Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Hanoi, Vietnam
2 University of Science and Technology of Hanoi, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18-Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam
3 Institute of Biotechnology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Hanoi, Vietnam
4 Institute of Biotechnology; University of Science and Technology of Hanoi, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18-Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam

Correspondence Address:
Phuong T.M. Nguyen
Institute of Biotechnology; Institute of Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Hanoi
Vietnam
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.284947

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Objective: To investigate the antibiofilm activity of alpha- mangostin (AMG) loaded nanoparticle (nanoAMG) against dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. Methods: AMG was isolated from the peels of Garcinia mangostana L. using silica gel columns and chemically analysed by high performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. NanoAMG was prepared using the solvent evaporation method combined with high-speed homogenization. The nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The toxicity of nanoAMG in fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line was determined using MTT method. The antibiofilm effect of nanoAMG was determined through the evaluation of biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans using a 96-well plate. Biofilm biomass was quantified using crystal violet. Cell viability was observed under confocal microscopy using LIVE/DEAD BacLight staining. Moreover, gene expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and membrane permeabilization activity by measuring the uptake of o-nitrophenol- β-D-galactoside. Results: NanoAMG size was in a range of 10-50 nm with a polydispersity index of < 0.3 and zeta potential value of -35.2 mV The size and the incorporation of AMG in the nanoparticles were confirmed by FE-SEM and FTIR analyses. The IC50 values of the test agents on NIH/3T3 cells were (9.80 ± 0.63) μg/mL for AMG and (8.70 ± 0.81) μg/mL for nanoAMG, while no toxicity was generated from excipients used to prepare nanoparticles. In the early stage of biofilm formation, treatment with 6.25 μmol/L nanoAMG caused a reduction in biofilm biomass up to 49.1%, compared to 33.4% for AMG. In contrast, biofilms at the late stage were more resistant to the test agents. At 96 μmol/L (= 10 × MIC), nanoAMG reduced only 20.7% of biofilm biomass while AMG did not show any effect. Expressions of gtfB and gtfC genes involved in biofilm formation were down-regulated 3.3 and 12.5 folds, respectively, compared to AMG (2.4 and 7.6 folds, respectively). LIVE/DEAD BacLight fluorescence staining and microscopy observation indicated that biofilm cells were killed by both nanoAMG and AMG at 48 μmol/L (= 5 × MIC). In addition, membrane permeabilization activity was increased in a time dependent manner and higher in nanoAMG treated cells compared to AMG. Conclusions: AMG coated nanoparticle can enhance AMG bioactivity and can be used as a new and promising antibiofilm agent.


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