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   2020| September  | Volume 10 | Issue 9  
    Online since July 30, 2020

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Antidiabetic effect of Chrysophyllum albidum is mediated by enzyme inhibition and enhancement of glucose uptake via 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes
Benjamin Kingsley Harley, Rita Akosua Dickson, Isaac Kingsley Amponsah, Robert A Ngala, Dorice Berkoh, Theophilus Christian Fleischer
September 2020, 10(9):387-396
Objective: To investigate the in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic potential of Chrysophyllum albidum. Methods: The effects of oral treatment with hydro-ethanolic extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) of the stem bark of Chrysophyllum albidum and glibenclamide for 21 d on glucose level, serum enzyme markers for liver function, lipid profile, total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine, and body weight were evaluated in experimental diabetic rats administered with 45 mg/kg of streptozotocin. In vitro assays including glucose uptake in C2C12 cells and 3T3-L1 adipose tissues, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition were employed to evaluate the possible mechanism of hypoglycemic action of the extract. DPPH and nitric oxide radical antioxidant activity of the extract was also measured. Results: The increased levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, low- density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, serum aspartate, and alanine transaminases, creatinine, and urea in the diabetic animals were reduced significantly (P<0.01) after treatment with Chrysophyllum albidum extract. The decreased total protein and high-density lipoprotein concentrations were normalized after treatment. In addition, the extract significantly (P<0.01) increased the transport of glucose in 3T3-L1 cells and C2C12 myotubes and exhibited considerable potential to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase. It also demonstrated potent antioxidant action by scavenging considerably DPPH and nitric oxide radicals. Conclusions: Chrysophyllum albidum stem bark extract exhibits considerable antidiabetic effect by stimulating glucose uptake and utilization in C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as inhibiting the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase.
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Immunomodulatory and anticancer activity of Bombax ceiba Linn leaf extract
Neelima Sharma, Sneha Kispotta, Papiya Mitra Mazumder
September 2020, 10(9):426-432
Objective: To evaluate the immunomodulatory and anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of Bombax ceiba leaves in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The antioxidant property of methanolic extract of Bombax ceiba leaves was determined by measuring hydrogen peroxide scavenging and DPPH scavenging activity. The effect on cellular immunity in vivo was determined by measuring neutrophil adhesion, carbon clearance, sheep red blood cell induced DTH response and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. In vitro anticancer activity was evaluated on human leukaemia cell line (HL-60) by MTT assay, caspase-3 activity, and cell cycle study. Results: The methanolic extract of Bombax ceiba leaves showed antioxidant activity and significantly increased neutrophil adhesion, carbon clearance from blood, DTH response and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. The MTT assay showed a significant increase in the death of HL-60 cell line. A rise in caspase-3 activity and sub-G1 population in the presence of methanolic extract of Bombax ceiba leaves was observed. Conclusions: The methanolic extract of leaves of Bombax ceiba L possesses anticancer activity, immunomodulatory activity, and antioxidant properties, proving its therapeutic usefulness in the treatment of immuno-compromised diseases and cancers.
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In vitro antioxidant and anti-cancer activities and phytochemical analysis of Commelina benghalensis L. root extracts
Riffat Batool, Ejaz Aziz, Javed Iqbal, Hina Salahuddin, Benny Kwong-Huat Tan, Saira Tabassum, Tariq Mahmood
September 2020, 10(9):417-425
Objective: To explore antioxidant potential, anti-cancer activity, and phytochemicals of Commelina benghalensis L. Methods: The roots of Commelina benghalensis were extracted in different solvents (methanol, ethanol, benzene, chloroform, n-hexane) with a range of polarity. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by reducing power assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity and phosphomolybdenum method, cytotoxicity by MTT assay, apoptotic and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry, migratory and invasive potential by wound scratch assay and invasion assay, respectively, functional groups analysis by FT-IR spectroscopy and phytochemicals by aluminum chloride colorimetric and Folin- Ciocalteu methods. Results: The extracts showed worthy antioxidant potential. The chloroform extract demonstrated the most significant cytotoxic effect on MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer) cell line, induced apoptosis and reduced migratory and invasive potential of MDA-MB-231 cells. Methanol and ethanol extracts presented good yield of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. The FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed different characteristic peak values with various functional compounds such as alkenes, alkanes, aliphatic amines, aromatics, alkyl halides, carboxylic acid, alcohols, ester, aldehydes and ketones. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the potential use of Commelina benghalensis as a good antioxidant with significant anti-cancer effect.
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Opuntia humifusa aqueous extract alleviates ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in a mouse model
Chi-Yeol Yoo, Hyeong-U Son, Alshammari Fanar, Hee-Jung Choi, Md Badrul Alam, Sang-Han Lee
September 2020, 10(9):403-410
Objective: To investigate the effect of Opuntia humifusa aqueous extract on gastric ulcers. Methods: An ethanol-induced model was used to examine the protective effect of Opuntia humifusa against gastric ulcers. The gastric ulcer index was evaluated via clinical observation and image analysis. Various inflammatory indicators were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting assays. Results: The gastric ulcer index was reduced to 8% in the group treated with Opuntia humifusa aqueous extract compared with that in the control group. RT-PCR analysis revealed that MUC5AC expression was reduced to 39% in the control group compared with the non-treated group, whereas the omeprazole and Opuntia humifusa aqueous extract-treated groups increased the expression to 95% and 79%, respectively. Moreover, the expressions of various cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were increased in the control group, while decreasing in Opuntia humifusa aqueous extract-treated group. Opuntia humifusa aqueous extract also suppressed the expressions of iNOS, COX-2, and its transcription factor NF-κB and increased mucus content considerably as compared to the control group. Conclusions: These results suggest that Opuntia humifusa aqueous extract is suitable as an alternative remedy for gastric ulcer treatment.
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Allolobophora caliginosa coelomic fluid ameliorates gentamicin-induced hepatorenal toxicity in rats
Saad Bin Dajem, Sara Bayoumi Ali, Omar Ghanem Abdelrady, Nouraldin Mahmoud Salahaldin, Ahmed Muhammed Soliman, Yasmin Mohamed Kamal, Ammar Yasser Abdelazim, Aya Fadi Mohamed, Kareem Morsy, Ayman Saber Mohamed, Sohair Ramadan Fahmy
September 2020, 10(9):411-416
Objective: To explore the efficacy of earthworm’s coelomic fluid against gentamicin-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in rats. Methods: The animals were divided randomly into three groups (n = 6 per group): control, gentamicin, and Allolobophora caliginosa coelomic fluid-treated groups. Toxicity was established after injection of gentamicin daily for 8 days at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and histopathology of tissues were investigated in the study. Results: Allolobophora caliginosa coelomic fluid significantly decreased urea, creatinine, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and malondialdehyde levels while significantly increasing levels of total proteins, albumin, glutathione and catalase. The histopathological investigation showed partial restoration of renal and hepatic architecture. Conclusions: This study shows the potency of Allolobophora caliginosa coelomic fluid in improving the biochemical and histopathological changes induced by gentamicin in the liver and kidney of the rats.
  323 88 -
Resveratrol downregulates TGF-β1 and Smad3 expression and attenuates oxidative stress in CCl4-induced kidney damage in rats
Saeed Mohammadi, Jamshid Karimi, Heidar Tavilani, Iraj Khodadadi, Roohollah Mohseni, Mohammad Hashemnia
September 2020, 10(9):397-402
Objective: To evaluate the effect of resveratrol against CCl4- induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups randomly. After six weeks, kidney weight, body weight, blood urea, serum creatinine, oxidative stress markers, and gene expression of renal transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), TGF-β receptor type 1 (TGF-βR1) and Smad3 were determined. In addition, the protein level of TGF-β1 in the tissue lysate was measured. Results: Resveratrol had a protective role in renal tissue by the improvement of antioxidant balance and reduction of renal parameters such as creatinine and urea (P<0.001). In addition, the renal mRNA level of TGF-β1, TGF-βRl, Smad3, as well as the protein level of TGF-β1 were decreased in rats treated with resveratrol (P<0.001), compared to the CCl4 group. Conclusions: Overall, resveratrol shows a protective effect against nephrotoxicity in CCl4 treated rats by reducing oxidative stress status and modulating the TGF-β signaling.
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