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REVIEW
A comprehensive review on clinical outcome of probiotic and synbiotic therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases
Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi
March 2018, 8(3):179-186
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.228000  
The composition of gut microflora and its metabolic activity are closely correlated with the host immune system, and the changes in the biometric of the microbiome lead to inflammatory diseases like inflammatory bowel disease. The supplementation of probiotics and synbiotic could indeed manipulate the microflora, which can be an alternative therapy for ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. Several in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies for the initiation and maintenance of remission in patients with inflammatory bowel disease have been completed. Those studies evaluated the efficacy of many probiotic formulations, especially about VSL#3. Even though the clinical studies proved that almost all the probiotic interventions are safe and bring improvement to patients, some studies are deficient in sample size, proper controls, and follow-ups. This paper summarizes the possible mechanism of inflammatory bowel disease development, probiotics, the clinical outcome of probiotic and synbiotic interventions for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, as well as the adverse effect of probiotic treatments.
  2,537 460 2
A comprehensive review on anti-diabetic property of rice bran
Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Periyanaina Kesika, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut
January 2018, 8(1):79-84
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221142  
Rice bran (RB) is one of the nutrient-rich agricultural byproducts. It is a composite of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, fibers, minerals, and trace elements such as phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and manganese. The extraction and purification process influences the quality and quantity of rice bran oil, which is rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and unsaturated fatty acids. The bioactive components of RB have been reported for exhibiting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, anti-cancer, anti-colitis, and antidiabetic properties. In vitro and in vivo studies, and clinical trials in human volunteers revealed the anti-hyperglycemic activity of RB derived compounds. An updated comprehensive review on the antidiabetic property of RB and its derivative is required to appraise the current knowledge in the particular field. Thus, the present paper covered the composition and bioactivities of RB, and influence of extraction methods on the biological property of rice bran oil and rice bran extract. And the current review also focused on the reported anti-hyperglycemia activity of rice bran derivatives, and its probable mechanism.
  2,449 482 1
BASIC RESEARCH
Correlation of phytochemical content with antioxidant potential of various sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) in West Java, Indonesia
Irda Fidrianny, Hendy Suhendy, Muhamad Insanu
January 2018, 8(1):25-30
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221131  
Objective: To determine antioxidant activity and phytochemical content from various tubers extracts of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and to explore the correlation of phytochemical content with their antioxidant activities. Methods: Antioxidant activities were tested using DPPH and FRAP assays. Total phenolic was calculated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoid content by Chang’s method and correlation with their antioxidant activities were analyzed by Pearson’s method. Results: PO2 showed highest antioxidant activity, which had the lowest IC50 DPPH (10.54 μg/mL) and the lowest EC50 FRAP (11.14 μg/mL). PO2 showed the highest total phenolic (11.91 g GAE/100 g) and total flavonoid content (17.83 g QE/100 g). There were significantly negative correlation between total phenolic content and flavonoid content in sample PO with their IC50 DPPH and EC50 FRAP. IC50 DPPH of sample PP and PO showed significantly positive correlation with their EC50 FRAP. Conclusions: Result of DPPH method shows that all different ethyl acetate and ethanolic tubers extracts of four varieties of sweet potato are classified as strong and very strong antioxidant. Result of DPPH and FRAP methods indicates that phenolic and flavonoid compounds in sample PO contributes together to antioxidant activities. Antioxidant activities of sample PP and PO by DPPH method are linear to FRAP method.
  2,016 448 -
CLINICAL RESEARCH
Pharmacodynamic profiling of optimal sulbactam regimens against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii for critically ill patients
Weerayuth Saelim, Wichai Santimaleeworagun, Sudaluck Thunyaharn, Dhitiwat Changpradub, Piraporn Juntanawiwat
January 2018, 8(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221129  
Objective: To study the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sulbactam against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-AB) and to determine the dosage regimens reaching target time of free drug concentration remaining above the MIC (fT>MIC). Methods: Clinical isolates of CR-AB from patients admitted to Phramongkutklao Hospital, Thailand from January 2014 to December 2015 were obtained. The MIC of sulbactam for each CR-AB isolate was determined using the agar dilution method. Each sulbactam regimen was simulated using the Monte Carlo technique to calculate the probability of target attainment (PTA) and the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) in critically ill patients. PTA was defined by how likely a specific drug dose was to reach 40% and 60% fT>MIC. The CFR was the probability of drug dose covering the MIC range of CR-AB. Dosing regimens reaching above 80% of PTA and CFR, were considered as the optimal dosage for documented and empirical therapy, respectively. Results: A total of 118 CR-AB isolates were included in the study. The percentile at the fiftieth and ninetieth MIC of sulbactam were 64 and 192 μg/mL, respectively. For a MIC of sulbactam of 4 μg/mL, all dosage regimens achieved PTA target. However, only a sulbactam dosage of 12 g intravenous daily using 2-4 h infusion or continuous infusion that covered for isolates with a sulbactam MIC of 96 μg/mL, met the PTA or CFR targets. Conclusions: The MIC of sulbactam against CR-AB is quite high. The sulbactam dose of 12 g/day using prolonged infusion was required to achieve the target fT>MIC for CR-AB treatment.
  2,046 415 -
BASIC RESEARCH
Protective effect of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) against neurotoxicity induced by aluminum chloride in rats
Mohamed E Elhadidy, Hussein G Sawie, Nagwa A Meguid, Yasser A Khadrawy
January 2018, 8(1):59-66
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221139  
Objective: To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of ashwagandha extract against aluminum chloride-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Methods: Rats were divided into control, aluminum-intoxicated rats treated daily with aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) (100 mg/kg, orally) for 30 d and aluminum-intoxicated animals protected by receiving daily ashwagandha extract (200 mg/kg, orally) one hour before AlCl3 administration for 30 d. Levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. In addition, the activities of Na+, K+, ATPase and acetylcholinesterase were determined in the three studied brain regions. Results: Aluminum increased the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum and decreased the reduced glutathione level in the hippocampus and striatum. In rats protected with ashwagandha extract, non significant changes were observed in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and reduced glutathione. In addition, ashwagandha extracts prevented the increased activity of acetylcholinesterase and Na+, K+, ATPase induced by AlCl3 in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The present findings also showed that the significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-α induced by AlCl3 in the cortex and hippocampus was prevented by ashwagandha extract. Conclusions: The present results suggest that ashwagandha extract possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects against aluminum neurotoxicity. In addition, ashwagandha extract could prevent the decline in cholinergic activity by maintaining normal acetylcholinesterase activity. The later effect could recommend the use of ashwagandha as a memory enhancer.
  1,966 316 -
REVIEW
Proteomic approach in human health and disease: Preventive and cure studies
Khaled MM Koriem
April 2018, 8(4):226-236
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.231285  
Proteomic is a branch of science that deals with various numbers of proteins where proteins are essential human constituents. Proteomic has a lot of functions inside the human and animal living organisms. This review helps to make a thought on the importance of proteomic application in human health and disease with special reference to preventive and cure studies. The human health can be divided into physical and mental health. The physical health relates to keeping human body state in a good health and to nutritional type and environmental factors. The mental health correlates to human psychological state. The main factors that affect the status of human health are human diet, exercise and sleep. The healthy diet is very important and needs to maintain the human health. The training program exercise improves human fitness and overall health and wellness. The sleep is a vital factor to sustain the human health. The human disease indicates abnormal human condition which influences the specific human part or the whole human body. There are external and internal factors which induce human disease. The external factors include pathogens while internal factors include allergies and autoimmunity. There are 4 principle types of human diseases: (1) infectious disease, (2) deficiency disease, (3) genetic disease and (4) physiological disease. There are many and various external microbes' factors that induce human infectious disease and these agents include viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The lack of necessary and vital dietary rudiments such as vitamins and minerals is the main cause of human deficiency disease. The genetic disease is initiated by hereditary disturbances that occur in the human genetic map. The physiological disease occurs when the normal human function body is affected due to human organs become malfunction. In conclusion, proteomic plays a vital and significant role in human health and disease.
  1,838 395 -
Medicinal values of aquatic plant genus Nymphoides grown in Asia: A review
Zihan Rahman Khan, Nargis Sultana Chowdhury, Suriya Sharmin, Md. Hossain Sohrab
February 2018, 8(2):113-119
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.225615  
Nymphoides is an aquatic genus consisting about 50 species, of which few were accepted as traditional medicinal plants in Asia. The literature review revealed that Nymphoides species are widely used in Ayurvedic medicine as a popular drug, i.e. Tagara. They are also utilized by the traditional local healers of different Asian countries to treat various diseases, like convulsion, jaundice, fever, headache, etc. According to the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological studies, Nymphoides species have been claimed to possess major biological activities like anticonvulsant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, cytotoxic, antitumor, etc. Biochemical profiling of different aquatic plants of this genus revealed the presence of some important phytochemicals as polyphenolic component, flavonoids, triterpenes, carbohydrates, glycosides, etc. Several valuable bioactive compounds including ephedrine, coumarin, secoiridoid glucosides, methyl quercetin, ferulic acid, foliamenthoic acid, etc. were also known to be isolated and identified from different Nymphoides species. The aim of this review is to analyze the published report based on the medicinal values of different Asian Nymphoides species, to provide the updated information about the ethnomedicinal, pharmacological as well as the phytochemical properties for the first time.
  1,891 231 1
BASIC RESEARCH
Proximate composition, nutritional values and phytochemical screening of Piper retrofractum vahl. fruits
Nurul Jadid, Byan Arasyi Arraniry, Dewi Hidayati, Kristanti Indah Purwani, Wiwi Wikanta, Sylviana Rosyda Hartanti, Rizka Yuanita Rachman
January 2018, 8(1):37-43
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221136  
Objective: To investigate the proximate and mineral composition of the Piper retrofractum (P. retrofractum) vahl. Fruit and to evaluate its total alkaloids, phenol and flavonoid. Methods: The proximate composition of P. retrofractum fruit was ananlyzed using standard protocols according to Indonesian Standard and Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Meanwhile, mineral composition of the fruit was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Phytochemical screening and quantification were performed using standard protocols according to Harborn and spectrophotometric methods. Results: The results showed that P. retrofractum fruit contained carbohydrate (63.4%), crude protein (11.4%), total ash (4.29%), dietary fiber (28.8%) and total fat (2.97%). The fruit also contained calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphor, potassium, sodium and zinc in different concentrations. Additionally, quinone, sterol, glycosides and alkaloid were detected in both n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. Moreover, tannin was presented also in ethylacetate and methanol extracts. Meanwhile, methanol extract contained sterol, glycosides, flavones, tannin and alkaloid. The results also revealed that methanol extract of the fruit contained highest phenol compared to other extract. Finally, small quantity of flavonoid (0.060 0%±0.000 2%) was observed. Conclusions: The overall results show that P. retrofractum contains potential nutritional and phytochemicals values, which support their function for pharmaceutical purposes.
  1,768 335 -
Metabolic disturbance and phytochemical changes in Andrographis paniculata and possible action mode of andrographolide
Netiya Karaket, Nuchada Maneejantra, Patoomratana Tuchinda, Jirapha Kunapin, Choowong Auesukaree, Kanyaratt Supaibulwatana
February 2018, 8(2):85-91
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.225618  
Objective: To explore the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) and its inhibitor paclobutrazol (PBZ) on chemical composition and their pharmacological effects on Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees, and to clarify action mode of andrographolide. Methods: The chemical composition was extracted by sequential extraction with hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively. Andrographolide and its derivatives were evaluated by HPLC. Moreover, the metabolic profiling was analyzed by GC-MS. Inhibitory effect of crude extracts was tested against Staphylococcus aureus using agar well diffusion method. Mode of action was tested against mutant yeast by spotting assay. Andrographolide were tested for their mode of action against eukaryotes. Results: Among different solvents, dichloromethane gave the highest yield of crude (3.58% DW), with the highest andrographolide content (8.3 mg/g DW). The effect of plant hormone (10 mg/L GA3 or PBZ) on phytochemical variations and bioactivity of Andrographis paniculata was demonstrated. It was found that PBZ promoted sesquiterpene compounds about 3.5 times over than GA3 treatment. But inhibitory effect of extracts against Staphylococcus aureus was highest in GA3 treated plants; andrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide contents were significantly higher than those of water or PBZ. It was found that there were 11 strains involving in ergosterol biosynthesis, V-ATPase activity and homeostasis, and superoxide detoxification process. In this regard, andrographolide might cause the damage on the lipid bilayer of yeast cell and plasma membrane by interfering ergosterol biosynthesis. Conclusions: It is found that GA3 promotes andrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide content while PBZ promotes sesquiterpene content. Andrographolide might cause the damage on the lipid bilayer of yeast cell and plasma membrane by interfering ergosterol biosynthesis. It might also affect mitochondria electron transport chain, leading to the occurrence of ROS, which can further harm cell organelles. However, the library screening is the first step to investigate mode of action of andrographolide.
  1,736 318 -
REVIEW
Probiotic based therapy for atopic dermatitis: Outcomes of clinical studies
Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Periyanaina Kesika, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut
June 2018, 8(6):328-332
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.235328  
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the chronic inflammatory skin diseases characterized by conflicts in epidermal barrier and wired immune response. About 10%-20% of the population is affected by AD, especially infants. Topical application of corticosteroids, antihistamines, and antibiotics are used to treat severe AD condition. Recent studies suggest that disturbance in skin and intestinal microbiota is majorly linked to skin diseases. Probiotics are known for the positive alteration of an individual's microbiome and associated with several health benefits. Clinical studies suggest that probiotic and synbiotic supplementation protect infants from a stringent AD to some extent. Reduction in the risk of AD development upon probiotic supplementation was not observed in all studied populations. Further studies are needed to regularize microbiome of skin and intestine in AD patients that may reduce AD severity. Present review summarizes the outcomes from clinical studies on AD using probiotic as an alternative treatment candidate.
  1,756 259 1
Insight into DNA protection ability of medicinal herbs and potential mechanisms in hydrogen peroxide damages model
Zahra Sabahi, Fatemeh Soltani, Mahmoodreza Moein
February 2018, 8(2):120-129
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.225616  
DNA damage is one of the most important consequences of oxidative stress in the cells. If DNA repair is unable to modify these inducible DNA damages, genomic instability may lead to mutation, cancer, aging and many other diseases. Single cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay is a common and versatile method to quantify these types of DNA damages. DNA damages induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are one of the proper models for measurement of protective ability of different compounds. So the main aim of this review is to provide an overview about protection ability of medicinal plants and their potential mechanism against H2O2 induced DNA damages. In this review, relevant researches on the effect of medicinal plants on DNA damages induced by H2O2 and possible molecular mechanisms are discussed. It seems that, medicinal plants are considered as therapeutic key factors to protect DNA from consequences caused by oxidative stress. Sufficient in vitro evidences introduce them as DNA protective agents through different mechanisms including antioxidant activity and some other cellular mechanisms. Moreover, in order to correlate the antigenotoxicity effects with their potential antioxidant property, most of medicinal plants were evaluated in term of antioxidant activity using standard methods. This review highlights the preventive effects of herbal medicine against oxidative DNA damages as well as provides rational possibility to engage them in animal studies and future clinical investigations.
  1,759 245 -
BASIC RESEARCH
Antioxidant and antiglycation properties of two mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars from Senegal
Samba Fama Ndoye, Didier Fraisse, Blandine Akendengué, Mbaye Diaw Dioum, Rokhaya Sylla Gueye, Cheikh Sall, Insa Seck, Catherine Felgines, Matar Seck, François Senejoux
March 2018, 8(3):137-141
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.227994  
Objective: To evaluate the total phenolic contents, antioxidant and antiglycation activities of leaves, barks, roots and kernels from two cultivars of Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae). Methods: Total phenolic contents were determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu's method. The antioxidant activities were assessed by three different protocols including DPPH, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and iron (II) chelation assays. In addition, in vitro bovine serum albumin/D-ribose assay was chosen to evaluate the antiglycation properties of the extracts. Results: All the investigated extracts were found to contain high level of total phenols as well as potent antioxidant activities. Kernel extracts showed the highest total phenol contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities whereas higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity values were observed for leave, root and bark extracts. Besides, extracts from leaves, roots and barks from both cultivars exhibited potent inhibitory effects against the formation of advanced glycation end products, with IC50 values lower than the standard positive control aminoguanidine. Conclusions: The potent antiglycation and antioxidative activities of these two Mangifera indica cultivars suggest a possible role in targeting aging, diabetic complications and oxidative stress related diseases.
  1,607 347 -
New Thai herbal shampoos as pediculicides for killing head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera)
Sirawut Sittichok, Orawan Wongnet, Mayura Soonwera
February 2018, 8(2):106-112
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.225614  
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Thai herbal shampoos [Cartoxylum formosum (C. formosum) + eucalyptus essential oil (EO), C. formosum + citrus EO, Solanum trilobatum + eucalyptus EO, Solanum trilobatum + citrus EO, Moringa oleifera + eucalyptus EO and Moringa oleifera + citrus EO] for killing all stages of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera). Methods: A filter paper contact method was applied with three concentrations (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mL/cm2) of each Thai herbal shampoo as well as permethrin pediculicide (positive control) and drinking water (negative control) against eggs, nymphs and adults of Pediculus humanus capitis. Mortality rates of the eggs were recorded after 7 days of incubation while those of nymphs and adults were recorded after 5 minutes of contact. Results: All herbal shampoos at the high concentration were highly effective against nymphs and adults, but not effective against the eggs. C. formosum + eucalyptus EO and C. formosum + citrus EO shampoos at all concentrations exhibited the highest efficacy against nymphs and adults with 100% mortality rate at 5 min and LC50 values of 0.004 and 0.005 mL/cm2, respectively. All formulation of Solanum trilobatum and Moringa oleifera shampoos added with eucalyptus EO showed mortality rates against nymphs at 92.0%-100.0% and 76.0%-100.0% and against adults at 84.0%-100.0% and 20.0%-32.0%, respectively. Permethrin pediculicide was not effective against the eggs, but showed 68.0%-92.0% and 28.0%-60.0% mortality rates against nymphs and adults. Conclusions: These results indicate that C. formosum + eucalyptus EO shampoo can be used as an effective nymphicide and adulticide against Pediculus humanus capitis.
  1,671 266 -
Larvicidal activity of Neem oil and three plant essential oils from Senegal against Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper, 1789)
Saliou Ngom, Raimundo Cabrera Perez, Ma Anta Mbow, Rokhaya Fall, Saliou Niassy, Andreea Cosoveanu, Serigne Mbacké Diop, El Hadji Barka Ndiaye, Moussoukhoye Diop, Georges Lognay
January 2018, 8(1):67-72
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221140  
Objective: To evaluate the insecticide, larvicidal and repellent activity of the essential oils from Callistemon viminalis, Melaleuca leucadendron, and Hyptis suaveolens against Chrysodeixis chalcites and to compare it with neem oil (Azadirachta indica). Methods: The essential oils of the leaves of these aromatiques plants were extracted by steam distillation and contacts tests were carried out. Results: Essential oils in ethanol from Callistemon viminalis showed a higher biological activity than the neem with 100% larval mortality at the concentration of 2 μg/mL for 6 h, 100% and 90% in ethanol from Melaleuca leucadendron and Hyptis suaveolens, respectively at the concentration of 4 μg/mL for 24 h. By inhalation, the essential oils from Melaleuca leucadendron and of Hyptis suaveolens were more effective with mortality rates of larvae 100% and 50% respectively at 2 μg/L air applied after 24 h. Nevertheless, the neem has shown to be a repulsive plant and anti-nutritional plant. A significant difference in the percentages of consumption between leaves treated with neem oil and the control samples was observed (Newman-Keuls test) except for Melaleuca leucadendron. Conclusions: The results of the study highlight remarkable biocide, properties of tested extracts, which provides important opportunities for the development of biopesticides.
  1,656 255 -
Efficacies of four plant essential oils as larvicide, pupicide and oviposition deterrent agents against dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)
Aksorn Chantawee, Mayura Soonwera
April 2018, 8(4):217-225
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.231284  
Objective: To evaluate larvicidal, pupicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of four plant essential oils from Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd rhizome, Anethum graveolens L. (An. graveolens) fruit, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruit, and Pimpinella anisum L. fruit against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods: Four essential oils at 1%, 5% and 10% concentrations were assessed for insecticidal activity against larvae and pupae of Ae. aegypti, following the procedure of a dipping method assay. Oviposition deterrent activity of four essential oils was evaluated on gravid female of Ae. aegypti by a dual-choice oviposition bioassay. Results: The results revealed that An. graveolens oil provided the strongest larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti among four tested plant essential oils with the highest mortality rate of 100% and LC50 value of -0.3%. From the pupicidal experiment, An. graveolens also showed the highest toxicity against Ae. aegypti pupae with the highest mortality rate of 100% at 72 h and LC50 value of 2.9%. In addition, 10% An. graveolens had an oviposition deterrent effect against Ae. aegypti with effective repellency of 100% and an oviposition activity index of –1.0. Conclusions: An. graveolens oil has a good potential as a larvicidal, pupicidal and oviposition deterrent agent for controlling Ae. aegypti.
  1,554 261 2
Synsepalum dulcificum extracts exhibit cytotoxic activity on human colorectal cancer cells and upregulate c-fos and c-jun early apoptotic gene expression
Jichang Seong, Glenn G Oyong, Esperanza C Cabrera
March 2018, 8(3):173-178
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.227999  
Objective: To explore cytotoxicity of Synsepalum dulcificum (S. dulcificum) Daniell (Sapotaceae) on human colon cancer (HCT-116 and HT-29), human monocytic leukemia (THP-1) and normal (HDFn) cell lines, and its effect on the expression of early apoptotic genes, c-fos and c-jun. Methods: Leaf, stem and berry of S. dulcificum were separately extracted by using 2 solvents, 10% ethanol (EtOH) and 80% methanol (MeOH). PrestoBlue® cell viability assay and qRT-PCR assay were conducted to examine the above objectives respectively. Results: Stem MeOH, stem EtOH, and berry EtOH extracts of S. dulcificum were cytotoxic to HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells. For HCT-116, IC50 values of these 3 extracts were not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of the positive control bleomycin (IC50 of 33.57 μg/mL), while for HT-29, IC50 values of these 3 extracts were significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of bleomycin (IC50 of 25.24 μg/mL). None of the extracts were cytotoxic to the THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells and HDFn normal human dermal fibroblasts. For both HCT-116 and HT-29, these extracts significantly up-regulated (P<0.05) the expression of c-fos and c-jun compared to the untreated negative control. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cytotoxicity of stem MeOH, stem EtOH, and berry EtOH extracts of S. dulcificum on HCT-116 and HT-29 colon cancer cells is due to the induced apoptosis which is caused by the up-regulation of the expression of early apoptotic genes, c-fos and c-jun.
  1,593 216 2
Synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from leaf of Litchi chinensis and its biological activities
Uzma Murad, Barkatullah , Shafqat Ali Khan, Muhammad Ibrar, Sami Ullah, Umbreen Khattak
March 2018, 8(3):142-149
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.227995  
Objective: To synthesize and isolate silver and gold nanoparticles from Litchi chinensis leaf methanolic extract, and to evaluate its comparative biological activities including muscles relaxant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal. Methods: The gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized by dissolving methanolic extract in gold chloride and silver nitrate solution separately which were confirmed by colour change and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and pellets were collected through centrifugation. Biological activities of the extract were conducted on BALB/c mice through various standard methods and the data were subjected to One-way ANOVA. Results: The colorless gold chloride solution changed to purple soon after the addition of plant extract, demonstrating that the reaction took place and gold ions were reduced to gold nanoparticles, while colorless silver nitrate solution changed to light and dark brown that was indicative of silver nanoparticles. The muscles relaxant activity showed that silver nanoparticles were more effective than gold nanoparticles and methanolic extract in traction test. The analgesic activity showed that silver and gold nanoparticles showed highest percentage decrease in acetic acid induced writhing at the doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg b.w. The highest anti-inflammatory activity was produced by gold nanoparticles followed by silver nanoparticles, while low activity was observed in methanolic leaf extract. Only the crude methanolic extract showed significant antidiarrheal activity as compared to the standard drug atropine sulphate, while antidiarrheal activities of gold and silver nanoparticles were non-significant. Conclusions: The present work concludes that isolated silver and gold nanoparticles from leaf methanolic extract shows strong muscles relaxant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities while crude methanolic extract possesses good antidiarrheal activity.
  1,511 269 -
Anticancer potential of Alternanthera sessilis extract on HT-29 human colon cancer cells
Sivapragasam Gothai, Katyakyini Muniandy, Norhaizan Mohd Esa, Suresh Kumar Subbiah, Palanisamy Arulselvan
August 2018, 8(8):394-402
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.239427  
Objective: To identify the bioactive extracts from Alternanthera sessilis and investigate its cytotoxicity potential against colon cancer cells, HT-29. Methods: This study examined the effects of three parts (aerial, leaf, stem) of whole plant on HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. Three different extracts from the plant parts were prepared by maceration technique using 80% ethanol. The anticancer activities were determined using MTT, clonogenic, cell motility and AOPI assay. The chemical composition profiling was analyzed by GC-MS. Results: Among three plant part extracts, leaf extract greatly suppressed the growth of colon cancer cells in time and dosage-dependent manner, followed by aerial and stem. The cytotoxicity results were rationalized with clonogenic, cell motility and AO/PI assay, where extract showed the most active activity compared to aerial and stem extracts. GC-MS analysis of leaf extract showed there were various recognized anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds. Conclusions: Amid the screened extracts, the leaf extract exhibits the credible cytotoxic, anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity and hence, our findings call for additional research to conclude the active compounds and their mechanisms determining the apoptotic activity.
  1,470 270 -
Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extract fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats via inhibition of inflammatory mediators
Ghazi A Bamagous, Saeed S Al Ghamdi, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz Ibrahim, Amal M Mahfoz, Mohamed A Afify, Mahdi HM. Alsugoor, Ahmed Ali Shammah, Palanisamy Arulselvan, Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan
June 2018, 8(6):320-327
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.235327  
Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic mechanism(s) of ethyl acetate extract fraction of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: A total of 24 adult male rats were segregated randomly into four groups (6 rats each group). Streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats were given (oral gavage) ethyl acetate extract fraction of M. oleifera (200 mg/kg b.w.) for 30 d. The rats of control and experimental groups were sacrificed after 24 hours of final dose of treatment, to extract blood and pancreatic tissue for biochemical and histopathological analysis. Results: The ethyl acetate extract fraction of M. oleifera significantly reversed (P<0.05) the manifestation of streptozotocin on the levels of serum glucose & insulin, lipid profile, hepatic damage markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase), malondialdehyde formation, antioxidants (glutathione, Vitamin C & Vitamin E), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β , TNF- α & IL-6). Histopathological analysis of pancreatic tissues was in concurrence with the biochemical results. Conclusions: These findings support that M. oleifera leaves have potent therapeutic effect on diabetes mellitus via increasing antioxidant levels and inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators.
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Larvicidal activity of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus bacteria against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Apichat Vitta, Punnawat Thimpoo, Wipanee Meesil, Thatcha Yimthin, Chamaiporn Fukruksa, Raxsina Polseela, Bandid Mangkit, Sarunporn Tandhavanant, Aunchalee Thanwisai
January 2018, 8(1):31-36
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221134  
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of symbiotic bacteria, Xenorhabdus indica, Xenorhabdus stockiae, Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. akhurstii and Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. hainanensis as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Methods: Larvae (L3-L4) of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were given 2 mL of a suspension 107-108 CFU/mL of each symbiotic bacterium. Distilled water and Escherichia coli ATCC® 25922 were used as the control. The mortality rate of the larval mosquitoes was observed at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The experiment was performed in triplicates. Results: The larvae of both Aedes species started to die at 24 h exposure. Aedes aegypti showed the highest mortality rate (87%-99%), 96 h after exposure to Xenorhabdus stockiae (bNBP22.2_TH). The mortality rate of Aedes albopictus was between 82% and 96% at 96 h after exposure to Xenorhabdus indica (bKK26.2_TH). Low effectiveness of distilled water and Escherichia coli ATCC® 25922 were observed in both Aedes larvae, with a mortality rate of 2% to 12%. Conclusions: The study confirms the oral toxicity of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus bacteria against Aedes spp. Xenorhabdus stockiae and Xenorhabdus indica may be an alternative agent for control Aedes spp. This is basic information for further study on the mechanism of action on Aedes larvae or application to control mosquito larvae in the community.
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Ethnobotanical survey of antimalarial plants in Awash-Fentale District of Afar Region of Ethiopia and in vivo evaluation of selected ones against Plasmodium berghei
Nega Alelign, Mirutse Giday, Tilahun Teklehaymanot, Abebe Animut
January 2018, 8(1):73-78
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221141  
Objective: To document plants used in traditional treatment of malaria in the Awash-Fentale District, the Afar Region of Ethiopia, and to evaluate antimalarial activity of selected ones against Plasmodium berghei in mice. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with purposively selected informants in the District to gather information on plants used in the traditional treatment of malaria. Standard procedures were used to investigate acute toxicity and a four-day suppressive effect of crude aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of the two most frequently cited plants [Aloe trichosantha (A. trichosantha) and Cadaba rotundifolia (C. rotundifolia)] against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. Results: The informants cited a total of 17 plants used in the traditional treatment of malaria in Awash-Fentale District. Plant parts were prepared as infusions or decoctions. Leaf was the most commonly cited (44%) plant part, followed by stem (22%). Shrubs were the most frequently cited (63%) medicine source followed by trees (21%). Of the 17 plants, C. rotundifolia and A. trichosantha were the most frequently mentioned plants in the district. Ethanol extracts of the leaves of C. rotundifolia and A. trichosantha suppressed P. berghei parasitaemia significantly accounting for 53.73% and 49.07%, respectively at 900 mg/kg. The plants were found to be non-toxic up to a dose of 1 500 mg/kg. Conclusions: Seventeen plant species were reported to be used for treatment of malaria in the Awash Fentale Distinct, among which A. trichosantha and C. rotundifolia were the most preferred ones. P. berghei suppressive activity of these plants may partly explain their common use in the community.
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Comparison of antioxidant capacity and α -glucosidase inhibitory activity between bitter melon (Momordica charanti) fruit and leaf extract
Eun-Sun Hwang
April 2018, 8(4):189-193
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.231280  
Objective: To compare the physiologically active substances, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in vitro of bitter melon fruit and leaf extract. Methods: Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were measured using spectrophotometrically by gallic acid and catechin standard curves, respectively. The radical-scavenging potential of bitter melon fruit and leaf extract were measured by DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability and reducing power and anti-diabetic ability was evaluated by α -glucosidase activity. Results: It was confirmed that the bitter melon leaf contained more total polyphenols and flavonoids than bitter melon fruits. Bitter melon leaf extract contained 2.8-fold and 4.9-fold higher total polyphenols and flavonoids than bitter melon fruits, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of bitter melon leaf was 5.81- and 5.70-fold higher than that of the bitter melon frui, based on 200 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL of the extract, respectively. In ABTS, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability and reducing power, the bitter melon leaf extract all showed higher antioxidant capacity than the bitter melon fruit. Bitter melon fruit showed 2.52- and 2.63-fold higher α -glucosidase inhibitory activity than bitter melon leaf extract at 200 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Based on our results, bitter melon may improve antidiabetic effects by upreguating α -glycosidase activity. Even, bitter melon leaf extract shows higher antioxidant potential than its fruit but bitter melon leaf extract does not show higher α -glucosidase inhibitory potential than bitter melon fruit. The overall results support that bitter melon fruit and leaf may have specific target effects on antidiabetic and antioxidant, respectively.
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REVIEW
Melissa officinalis and rosmarinic acid in management of memory functions and Alzheimer disease
Mohaddese Mahboubi
February 2019, 9(2):47-52
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.250849  
Alzheimer disease (AD) as worldwide progressive neurodegenerative disease is prevalent disease among elderly population. Due to limitation in chemical drugs along with their adverse effects of these treatments, research for finding more effective natural drugs, is one of interesting subjects among the scientists. Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis) has a long history of use in treatment of nervous system diseases. This review article evaluates the potency of M. officinalis in treatment of AD by review of experimental and clinical documents on the efficacy, safety and its mechanisms of action in management of AD. The information is extracted from electronic resources (PubMed, Wiley, Springer and Science Direct), English and Persian scientific books. In spite of different scientific and non-scientific reports on the use of M. officinalis and its main component of rosmarinic acid in neurodegenerative diseases, there is only one clinical trial on the efficacy of M. officinalis ethanol extract in management of AD. Different mechanisms of action for M. officinalis, including inhibitory effects against amyloid beta, reactive oxygen species, and acetylcholine esterase, are involved. Larger clinical trials are recommended to confirm the efficacy and safety of M. officinalis extracts in treatment of AD patients.
  1,184 442 -
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION
Prevalence of coronavirus from diarrheic calves in the Republic of Korea
Jinho Park, Du-Gyeong Han, SuHee Kim, Jeong-Byoung Chae, Joon-Seok Chae, Do-Hyeon Yu, Kyoung-Seong Choi
January 2018, 8(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221037  
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine rotavirus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus in the feces of normal and diarrheic Korean native calves aged 1-81 days between April and October of 2016 in the Republic of Korea. Methods: Samples were obtained from 50 normal and 93 diarrheic (56 semi-formed, 28 loose, and 9 watery feces) calves in six different regions of northern and southern Korea. These fecal samples were tested for BCoV, bovine rotavirus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus by RT-PCR. Results: Among the three pathogens examined, infection with BCoV was especially prominent in relation to diarrhea among calves aged 1-21 days [odds ratio (OR)=9.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-78.9; P=0.02). Infection with BCoV alone (OR=2.9; 95% CI: 1.1-7.6; P=0.03) or co-infection of BCoV with bovine viral diarrhea virus (OR=3.6; 95% CI: 1.0-12.4; P=0.04) was significantly associated with the development of loose feces. Grazing and colostrum intake strongly reduced the occurrence of diarrhea as compared to housed calves (OR=0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.4; P=0.00) and calves that had not been fed colostrum (OR=0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.7; P=0.02), respectively. Conclusions: The present study suggests that BCoV is involved in calf diarrhea in the Republic of Korea. Therefore, grazing and colostrum intake is recommended for preventing and controlling calf diarrhea caused by BCoV.
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BASIC RESEARCH
Phytochemical bioprospecting, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity activities of saline extract from Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray leaves
Bruno Rafael Barboza, Bárbara Rafaela da Silva Barros, Bárbara de Azevedo Ramos, Maiara Celine de Moura, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Maria Tereza dos Santos Correia, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Iranildo José da Cruz Filho, Ana Maria Souto Maior, Túlio Diego da Silva, Leylianne de Cássia Rodrigues Nerys, Edson Renan Barros de Santana, Cláudia Sampaio de Andrade Lima, Virgínia Maria Barros de Lorena, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos de Melo
May 2018, 8(5):245-253
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.233005  
Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of saline extract from Tithonia diversifolia leaves by phytochemical bioprospecting, and investigate its safety against animal cells. Methods: The saline extract was prepared, with NaCl (0.15 M), by constant stirring of the dried and pulverized leaves, followed by volume reduction by lyophilization. The extract was phytochemical characterized using ultra-performance liquid chromatography, and total phenol and flavonoid analysis also was performed. The antioxidant capacity was determined through DPPH· radical, the antimicrobial property was evaluated against standard bacteria and fungi, and the viability assays were performed against mice splenocytes. Results: Fifteen compounds were identified belonging to two main classes terpenoids and phenolics. The extract showed 22.185 mg GAE/g of total phenolic compounds and 3.220 mg QE/g of flavonoid. Moreover, extract showed higher antioxidant ability similar to butylated hydroxytoluene a standard molecule [(3.042±0.019) mg AAE/g and (4.12±0.10) mg AAE/g to saline extract and butylated hydroxytoluene, respectively]. The antimicrobial assays demonstrated that the extract had a significant antifungal potential against Candida species and could be used with safety against mice splenocytes, in concentrations lower than 50 μg/mL, promoting higher proliferation in these cells. Conclusions: Saline extract from Tithonia diversifolia leaves presents potential antioxidant, antifungal properties and induces immunostimulation in mice splenocytes.
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