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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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June 2018
Volume 8 | Issue 6
Page Nos. 285-332

Online since Thursday, June 28, 2018

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BASIC RESEARCH  

Effects of black chokeberry extracts on metastasis and cell-cycle arrest in SK-Hep1 human liver cancer cell line p. 285
Nhuan Do Thi, Eun-Sun Hwang
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.235313  
Objective: To determine the anti-cancer properties of black chokeberry extract on the SK- Hep1 human liver cancer cell line. Methods: MTT cell proliferation assay, wound migration, invasion, zymography and cell cycle were determined after black chokeberry fruit extract treatment. We also measured MMP-2/-9 and MT-1 MMP expression with protein and gene expression levels. Results: We detected four anthocyanins and three phenolic compounds in the black chokeberry by HPLC analysis. Cancer cell growth was inhibited in proportion to the concentration of black chokeberry extracts. In the adhesion test, 100 and 200 μg/mL of black chokeberry extracts decreased the adhesion rate of cancer cells to 87.6% and 75.3%, respectively, when the control group was 100.0%. The 200 μg/mL of black chokeberry extract reduced the MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions up to 96.8%and 11.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Based on our results, in the SK-Hep1 liver cancer cells, the black chokeberry extract inhibits cancer cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration, ultimately inhibiting cancer metastasis.
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Coriandrum sativum grown under organic or chemical fertilizer effectively prevents DNA damage: Preliminary phytochemical screening, flavonoid content, ESI (-) FT-ICR MS, in vitro antioxidant and in vivo (mice bone marrow) antimutagenic activity against cyclophosphamide p. 292
Patricia Carara dos Santos, Jean Carlos Vencioneck Dutra, Juliana Macedo Delarmelina, Lilian Valadares Tose, Wanderson Romão, Claudia Masrouah Jamal, Hildegardo Seibert França, Maria do Carmo Pimentel Batitucci
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.235324  
Objective: To evaluate the influence of fertilization and phenological stages on secondary metabolites production and chemoprotective effects of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum) L. Methods: The plants were grown under organic or chemical fertilizer, collected at vegetative and flowering development stages and their hydroalcoholic extracts were analyzed by phytochemicals methods, mass spectrometry, antioxidant and antimutagenic assays. Results: All extracts exhibited metabolites such as coumarins, flavonoids and steroids, and mass spectrometry showed similar molecular peaks among the extracts evaluated, suggesting the presence of palmitic and α -linolenic acids. Vegetative C. sativum extract grown under chemical fertilizer showed better antioxidant activity, according to the DPPH assay. Vegetative C. sativum extracts grown under organic and chemical fertilizer were able to effectively reduce micronucleous frequency in the simultaneous and pre-treatment protocols, especially reaching 55.90% of damage reduction in the pre-treatment protocol. Conclusions: These findings suggest that chemical fertilization promotes an increase in the content of flavonoids in C. sativum and, consequently, leads to better antioxidant and antimutagenic activities, as well as reinforces the potential uses of this culinary plant in health promotion and disease prevention.
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Evaluation of possible mechanisms of Cordia dichotoma fruits for hyperlipidemia controlling in Wistar albino rats p. 302
Samah A El-Newary, Abeer Y Ibrahim, Samir M Osman, Michael Wink
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.235325  
Objective: To investigate the antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract from Cordia dichotoma (C. dichotoma) fruits in-vitro and their effect on nutritional parameters in rats fed on high-fat diet. Methods: In-vitro antioxidant capacity of C. dichotoma extract were evaluated and compared to two standard materials, ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. Metabolic experiments were set out using rats fed on high-fat diet. The extract was tested with two dosages: 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg body weight/ day for four weeks. Lipid constituents of diet and faeces and lipid profile of serum and liver were determined. Results: The administration of the C. dichotoma extract with two dosages caused a significant improvement in the lipid metabolism of rats, compared to the hyperlipidemic control which showed significant disturbance in lipid profile. C. dichotoma extract reduced total body weight gain and total feed intake, and enhanced the fresh and dry weight of faecal excretion. The superior effect was recorded with the high dosage of extract. C. dichotoma minimized fat and cholesterol intake significantly and maximized those in faecal excretions in comparison with hyperlipidemic control values, and low dosage was better than the high one. C. dichotoma extract at two dosages normalized the lipid profile of the serum and liver compared with hyperlipidemic control. Conclusions: The protective effect of C. dichotoma extract against hyperlipidemia may be attributed to the reduced ability of an animal to ingest and absorb fat and cholesterol, and enhanced ability to get rid of them in faecal excretion.
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Antifungal and cytotoxic activities of extracts obtained from underutilised edible tropical fruits p. 313
Cheong Wei Ong, Yik Sin Chan, Kong Soo Khoo, Hean Chooi Ong, Nam Weng Sit
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.235326  
Objective: To evaluate antifungal and cytotoxic activities of four underutilised fruit species, i.e. Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), Cynometra cauliflora (nam-nam), Mangifera pajang (M. pajang) (Bambangan) and Physalis minima (wild gooseberry). Methods: Extracts from the fresh flesh of Artocarpus altilis and Cynometra cauliflora, the flesh and kernel of M. pajang, and the whole fruit of Physalis minima were obtained by sequential extraction using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and distilled water. Each extract was assessed against six species of human fungal pathogens using a colourimetric broth microdilution method. The cytotoxicity was evaluated using African monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells. Results: All 30 extracts showed inhibitory activity against Cryptococcus neoformans. However, none of the extracts were active against Aspergillus fumigatus. The ethanol, methanol and water extracts from the kernel of M. pajang fruit showed the strongest activity against three species of Candida and Trichophyton interdigitale, with a minimum inhibitory concentration range of 0.001 - 0.630 mg/mL. The corresponding mean 50% cytotoxic concentrations for these three extracts were 358.7, 158.4 and 261.3 μg/mL, respectively against Vero cells. In contrast, the flesh of M. pajang fruit (hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts) showed statistically significant (P<0.001; ANOVA) strong toxicity against the cells, with 30.6, 13.5 and 22.2 μg/mL of mean values of 50% cytotoxic concentrations, respectively. Conclusions: The results suggest that the bioactivity of the kernel of M. pajang fruit is more selective towards fungi and thus is a potential source of new antifungal agents.
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Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extract fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats via inhibition of inflammatory mediators p. 320
Ghazi A Bamagous, Saeed S Al Ghamdi, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz Ibrahim, Amal M Mahfoz, Mohamed A Afify, Mahdi HM. Alsugoor, Ahmed Ali Shammah, Palanisamy Arulselvan, Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.235327  
Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic mechanism(s) of ethyl acetate extract fraction of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: A total of 24 adult male rats were segregated randomly into four groups (6 rats each group). Streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats were given (oral gavage) ethyl acetate extract fraction of M. oleifera (200 mg/kg b.w.) for 30 d. The rats of control and experimental groups were sacrificed after 24 hours of final dose of treatment, to extract blood and pancreatic tissue for biochemical and histopathological analysis. Results: The ethyl acetate extract fraction of M. oleifera significantly reversed (P<0.05) the manifestation of streptozotocin on the levels of serum glucose & insulin, lipid profile, hepatic damage markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase), malondialdehyde formation, antioxidants (glutathione, Vitamin C & Vitamin E), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β , TNF- α & IL-6). Histopathological analysis of pancreatic tissues was in concurrence with the biochemical results. Conclusions: These findings support that M. oleifera leaves have potent therapeutic effect on diabetes mellitus via increasing antioxidant levels and inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators.
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REVIEW Top

Probiotic based therapy for atopic dermatitis: Outcomes of clinical studies p. 328
Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Periyanaina Kesika, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.235328  
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the chronic inflammatory skin diseases characterized by conflicts in epidermal barrier and wired immune response. About 10%-20% of the population is affected by AD, especially infants. Topical application of corticosteroids, antihistamines, and antibiotics are used to treat severe AD condition. Recent studies suggest that disturbance in skin and intestinal microbiota is majorly linked to skin diseases. Probiotics are known for the positive alteration of an individual's microbiome and associated with several health benefits. Clinical studies suggest that probiotic and synbiotic supplementation protect infants from a stringent AD to some extent. Reduction in the risk of AD development upon probiotic supplementation was not observed in all studied populations. Further studies are needed to regularize microbiome of skin and intestine in AD patients that may reduce AD severity. Present review summarizes the outcomes from clinical studies on AD using probiotic as an alternative treatment candidate.
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