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   Table of Contents - Current issue
March 2018
Volume 8 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 137-188

Online since Wednesday, March 21, 2018

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Antioxidant and antiglycation properties of two mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars from Senegal p. 137
Samba Fama Ndoye, Didier Fraisse, Blandine Akendengué, Mbaye Diaw Dioum, Rokhaya Sylla Gueye, Cheikh Sall, Insa Seck, Catherine Felgines, Matar Seck, François Senejoux
Objective: To evaluate the total phenolic contents, antioxidant and antiglycation activities of leaves, barks, roots and kernels from two cultivars of Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae). Methods: Total phenolic contents were determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu's method. The antioxidant activities were assessed by three different protocols including DPPH, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and iron (II) chelation assays. In addition, in vitro bovine serum albumin/D-ribose assay was chosen to evaluate the antiglycation properties of the extracts. Results: All the investigated extracts were found to contain high level of total phenols as well as potent antioxidant activities. Kernel extracts showed the highest total phenol contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities whereas higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity values were observed for leave, root and bark extracts. Besides, extracts from leaves, roots and barks from both cultivars exhibited potent inhibitory effects against the formation of advanced glycation end products, with IC50 values lower than the standard positive control aminoguanidine. Conclusions: The potent antiglycation and antioxidative activities of these two Mangifera indica cultivars suggest a possible role in targeting aging, diabetic complications and oxidative stress related diseases.
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Synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from leaf of Litchi chinensis and its biological activities p. 142
Uzma Murad, Barkatullah , Shafqat Ali Khan, Muhammad Ibrar, Sami Ullah, Umbreen Khattak
Objective: To synthesize and isolate silver and gold nanoparticles from Litchi chinensis leaf methanolic extract, and to evaluate its comparative biological activities including muscles relaxant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal. Methods: The gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized by dissolving methanolic extract in gold chloride and silver nitrate solution separately which were confirmed by colour change and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and pellets were collected through centrifugation. Biological activities of the extract were conducted on BALB/c mice through various standard methods and the data were subjected to One-way ANOVA. Results: The colorless gold chloride solution changed to purple soon after the addition of plant extract, demonstrating that the reaction took place and gold ions were reduced to gold nanoparticles, while colorless silver nitrate solution changed to light and dark brown that was indicative of silver nanoparticles. The muscles relaxant activity showed that silver nanoparticles were more effective than gold nanoparticles and methanolic extract in traction test. The analgesic activity showed that silver and gold nanoparticles showed highest percentage decrease in acetic acid induced writhing at the doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg b.w. The highest anti-inflammatory activity was produced by gold nanoparticles followed by silver nanoparticles, while low activity was observed in methanolic leaf extract. Only the crude methanolic extract showed significant antidiarrheal activity as compared to the standard drug atropine sulphate, while antidiarrheal activities of gold and silver nanoparticles were non-significant. Conclusions: The present work concludes that isolated silver and gold nanoparticles from leaf methanolic extract shows strong muscles relaxant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities while crude methanolic extract possesses good antidiarrheal activity.
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NO-cGMP-K channel-dependent anti-nociceptive activities of methanol stem bark extract of Piptadeniastrum africanum (Mimosaceae) on rats p. 150
Mbiantcha Marius, Almas Jabeen, Ateufack Gilbert, Shabana U Simjee, Bomba Tatsinkou Francis Desire, Nida Dastagir
Objective: To explore anti-hyperalgesic properties of methanol extract of Piptadeniastrum africanum stem bark (PAME) and it possible action mechanism. Methods: PAME was tested on carrageenan induced hyperalgesia using plantar test (thermal) and analgesymeter (mechanical) in rats, on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced mechanical hyperalgesia and vincristine induced neuropathic pain in rat, both with analgesymeter. Modulators of NO/ cGMP/K+ channel pathway and endogenous opioids receptor antagonists and/or agonists were used to determine the possible action mechanism of PAME. Results: PAME significantly decreased carrageenan induced thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, as well as PGE2 induced mechanical hyperalgesia. PAME significantly protected the animals against the installation of neuropathic pain. Anti-nociception activity produced by PAME was significantly blocked in animals pre treated with all the antagonists (naloxone, NW-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), methylene blue and glibenclamide). Conclusions: Results of this study reveal that, PAME administrate orally, can induce anti-hyperalgesic action against installation of inflammatory pain as well as neuropathic pain. The mechanism underlying PAME anti-hyperalgesic effect could probably be associated with an activation of opioid receptors and NO/cGMP/K+ channel pathway.
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Antidiabetic potential of methanol extracts from leaves of Piper umbellatum L. and Persea americana Mill. p. 160
Guy Sedar Singor Njateng, Sumera Zaib, Larissa Yetenge Chimi, Cesaire Feudjio, Raymond Simplice Mouokeu, Donatien Gatsing, Jules-Roger Kuiate, Ezekiel Adewole, Jamshed Iqbal
Objective: To determine inhibitory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Piper umbellatum and Persea americana (P. americana) (traditionally used in Cameroon against diabetes) on α -glucosidase, β -glucosidase, maltase-glucoamylase, aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase activities, enzymes involved in starch digestion or diabetic complications. Methods: The methanol extracts from Piper umbellatum and P. americana were prepared by maceration. To assess relative efficacy of these extracts, the determination of concentrations that were needed to inhibit 50% of enzyme activity was done, whereas, gas chromatography-mass spectrum was used to identify components from extracts that may be responsible for the activities. Results: The tested extracts strongly inhibited α -glucosidase, maltase-glucoamylase, aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase activities with IC50 ranging from (1.07 ± 0.03) to (31.77 ± 1.17) μg/mL. Among the tested extracts, P. americana was the most active against sensitive enzymes (IC50 of 1.07 ± 0.03 to 15.63 ± 1.23). But, none of the extracts showed interesting inhibitory effect against β -glucosidase as their percentage inhibitions were less than 16%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrum analysis, 10 and 8 compounds were identified in Piper umbellatum and P. americana extracts respectively, using NIST library 2014. Conclusions: Results of this study provide the scientific credential for a prospective usage of these plants to treat diabetes.
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Diet containing seeds of Buchholzia coriacea accelerates healing of acetic acid induced colitis in rats p. 166
Tosan P Omayone, Adeola T Salami, Adeola O Odukanmi, Samuel B Olaleye
Objective: To investigate the anti-colitic effects of diet containing seeds of Buchholzia coriacea (B. coriacea) on acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis. Methods: Male Wistar rats (70-100 g) were fed with standard diets (control group) or with same diet containing B. coriacea seeds at 12.5% or 25% for six weeks. At the sixth week, colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 1 mL/200 g 6% acetic acid. Animals were sacrificed at days 0 (before induction), 1, 3 and 7 post induction to assess disease severity via evaluation of stool consistency, haematological variables and histomorphometry of colon tissues. Results: A significant increase in body weight was observed in the 12.5% B. coriacea fed group compared to the control. B. coriacea significantly reduced stool consistency and microscopic scores. Histological evaluation revealed significantly decreased inflammatory aggregates in B. coriacea fed groups compared to control after colitis induction. There was a significant decrease in packed cell volume, red blood cell and haemoglobin concentration in the control group at day 1 post colitis induction compared to 12.5% B. coriacea fed groups. Neutrophils and white blood cell were also significantly increased after colitis induction in the control group while these were significantly decreased in the B. coriacea fed groups. Conclusions: The addition of B. coriacea seeds to diets promotes healing of acetic acid induced colitis by suppressing infiltration of inflammatory aggregates and ameliorating anemia.
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Synsepalum dulcificum extracts exhibit cytotoxic activity on human colorectal cancer cells and upregulate c-fos and c-jun early apoptotic gene expression p. 173
Jichang Seong, Glenn G Oyong, Esperanza C Cabrera
Objective: To explore cytotoxicity of Synsepalum dulcificum (S. dulcificum) Daniell (Sapotaceae) on human colon cancer (HCT-116 and HT-29), human monocytic leukemia (THP-1) and normal (HDFn) cell lines, and its effect on the expression of early apoptotic genes, c-fos and c-jun. Methods: Leaf, stem and berry of S. dulcificum were separately extracted by using 2 solvents, 10% ethanol (EtOH) and 80% methanol (MeOH). PrestoBlue® cell viability assay and qRT-PCR assay were conducted to examine the above objectives respectively. Results: Stem MeOH, stem EtOH, and berry EtOH extracts of S. dulcificum were cytotoxic to HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells. For HCT-116, IC50 values of these 3 extracts were not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of the positive control bleomycin (IC50 of 33.57 μg/mL), while for HT-29, IC50 values of these 3 extracts were significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of bleomycin (IC50 of 25.24 μg/mL). None of the extracts were cytotoxic to the THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells and HDFn normal human dermal fibroblasts. For both HCT-116 and HT-29, these extracts significantly up-regulated (P<0.05) the expression of c-fos and c-jun compared to the untreated negative control. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cytotoxicity of stem MeOH, stem EtOH, and berry EtOH extracts of S. dulcificum on HCT-116 and HT-29 colon cancer cells is due to the induced apoptosis which is caused by the up-regulation of the expression of early apoptotic genes, c-fos and c-jun.
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A comprehensive review on clinical outcome of probiotic and synbiotic therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases Highly accessed article p. 179
Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi
The composition of gut microflora and its metabolic activity are closely correlated with the host immune system, and the changes in the biometric of the microbiome lead to inflammatory diseases like inflammatory bowel disease. The supplementation of probiotics and synbiotic could indeed manipulate the microflora, which can be an alternative therapy for ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. Several in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies for the initiation and maintenance of remission in patients with inflammatory bowel disease have been completed. Those studies evaluated the efficacy of many probiotic formulations, especially about VSL#3. Even though the clinical studies proved that almost all the probiotic interventions are safe and bring improvement to patients, some studies are deficient in sample size, proper controls, and follow-ups. This paper summarizes the possible mechanism of inflammatory bowel disease development, probiotics, the clinical outcome of probiotic and synbiotic interventions for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, as well as the adverse effect of probiotic treatments.
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Potential therapeutic effects of thymoquinone on treatment of amphetamine abuse p. 187
Nurul Farah Aina Md Fauzi, Nor Hidayah Abu Bakar, Nasir Mohamad, Khairi Che Mat, Syed Hadzrullathfi Syed Omar, Mohd Shahril Othman, Rohayah Husain, Muhamad Zaid Ismail
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