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   Table of Contents - Current issue
November 2018
Volume 8 | Issue 11
Page Nos. 519-564

Online since Wednesday, November 28, 2018

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α-Mangostin and apigenin induced the necrotic death of BT474 breast cancer cells with autophagy and inflammation p. 519
Teeranai Ittiudomrak, Songchan Puthong, Tanapat Palaga, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Chanpen Chanchao
Objective: To find new compounds in order to overcome the mainstay of metastatic breast cancer due to the adverse side effects from, and increasing resistance to, current chemotherapeutic agents. Methods: α-Mangostin and apigenin were reported in comparison to doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic drug. Ductal carcinoma (BT474) cell line and non-tumorigenic epithelial tissue from mammary gland (MCF-10A) were used. Cell viability assessment was calculated by the standard 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Cell morphology was investigated by light microscopy. By flow cytometry analysis, programmed cell death was observed using annexin V and propidium iodide staining while cell-cycle arrest was observed using propidium iodide staining. Change in transcriptional expression was evaluated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results: In 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the result revealed α-mangostin and apigenin were more cytotoxic to BT474 cells. Longer exposure times to α-mangostin and apigenin caused more floating cells and a lower density of adhered cells with more vacuoles present in the colonies in BT474 only. α-Mangostin and apigenin caused necrosis in BT474 cells in a 24 h exposure, but a small amount of early apoptotic cells could also be detected at 24, 48 and 72 h exposure, whereas doxorubicin caused early apoptosis to BT474 cells at 24 h. Transcript expression and activity analysis supported caspase-3 was involved in the death of BT474 cells treated by all compounds. Moreover, α-mangostin and apigenin arrested the cell-cycle at the G1-phase, but at the G2/M-phase by doxorubicin. All three compounds induced a change in transcript expression levels of inflammation-associated, proto-oncogene, autophagy-associated and apoptosis-associated genes. Conclusions: α-Mangostin and apigenin are worth investigating as potential new sources of chemotherapeutic agents for breast cancer treatment.
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Antidiabetic effect of combination of fractionated-extracts of Andrographis paniculata and Centella asiatica: In vitro study p. 527
LOM. Fitrawan, R Ariastuti, RR Tjandrawinata, AE Nugroho, S Pramono
Objective: To examine the effect of combination of Andrographis paniculata herb fraction (AHF) and Centella asiatica herb fraction (CHF) on PPARγ and GLUT4 mRNA expressions in 3T3-L1 adipocyte, and its effect on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Methods: 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells were used to investigate gene expression of PPAR γ and GLUT4 proteins by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. The adipocyte cells were differentiated by using insulin, dexamethasone and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine from 3T3-L1 cells. Pioglitazone, AHF, CHF and the combination of both herbs were evaluated on glucose uptake activity, PPARγ and GLUT4 mRNA expressions in 3T3-L1 adipocyte. Results: The results showed that combination of AHF at 30 μg/mL and CHF at 10 μg/mL could enhance insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The combination also increased PPARγ and GLUT4 mRNA expressions significantly in comparison to those of negative control (DMSO). These effects were equal in comparison to those of pioglitazone (0.02 μM) and its single extracts. Conclusions: The combination of AHF and CHF can increase glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity through up-regulation of PPARγ and GLUT4 mRNA expressions in 3T3-L1 adipocyte.
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Bacillus sp. SAB E-41-derived extract shows antiaging properties via ctt1-mediated oxidative stress tolerance response in yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe p. 533
Muhammad Eka Prastya, Rika I Astuti, Irmanida Batubara, Aris T Wahyudi
Objective: To analyze potential activation of oxidative stress tolerance systems by SAB E-41 bacterial extract in promoting the life span of yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Methods: In vitro analysis was done to assess antioxidant activity of SAB E-41 bacterial extract. Antiaging property of the particular extract was then assayed through spot test and chronological life span assays. Furthermore, sty1 mitogen-activated protein kinase, pap1 transcriptional factor of oxidative stress response and its downstream genes, ctt1 were evaluated via real time PCR. The protein level of ctt1 was then observed via Western Blot analysis. In addition, accumulation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial activity were conducted to understand the effect of SAB E-41 upon oxidative stress response systems in vivo. Results: The IC50 values of corresponding extract for antioxidant (DPPH; ABTS) and antiglycation were 402.40, 358.13 and 683.55 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, SAB E-41 extract (750 μg/mL) exhibited antiaging properties, which could be attributed to significant up-regulation of oxidative stress response genes, sty1, pap1 and ctt1. Interestingly, SAB E-41 extract could enhance stress tolerance phenotype of Schizosaccharomyces pombe against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. These results were supported by increasing mitochondrial activity and reactive oxygen species intracellular levels. Conclusions: SAB E-41 extract could promote yeast life span likely via up-regulation of oxidative stress responses in yeast. Our results suggest that adaptive response via up-regulation of oxidative stress transcriptional factors, and its downstream gene, ctt1, as well as mitochondrial activity contributes in combating oxidative stress thus promoting yeast life span.
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Enhanced cytotoxic effect on human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) by gold nanoparticles synthesized from Justicia adhatoda leaf extract p. 540
D Latha, P Prabu, C Arulvasu, R Manikandan, S Sampurnam, V Narayanan
Objective: To synthesize bio-inspired gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using the leaf extract of Justicia adhatoda and evaluate the anti-cancer activity on human lung cancer cell line (A549). Methods: Synthesis of AuNPs was done using an aqueous leaf extract of Justicia adhatoda as a green route. The bio-synthesized AuNPs were confirmed and characterized by using various spectral studies such as UV-Vis spectrum, Scanning Electron Microscope with EDAX, Transmission Electron Microscope, Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscope analysis and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy. The cell viability was determined by MTT reduction assay. In addition, cytomorphology and the nuclear morphological study of A549 cell line was observed under fluorescence microscope. Results: UV-Vis spectrum showed surface plasmon resonance peak at 547 nm, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope studies showed the monodispersed spherical shape and its average size in the range of 40.1 nm was noticed. Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscope analysis confirmed that the C=O group of amino acids of proteins had strong ability to bind with the surface of nanoparticle. Interestingly, our results also demonstrated inhibited proliferation of A549 cell line by MTT (IC50 value: 80 μg/mL). Cell morphology was observed and cell death was caused by apoptosis as revealed by propidium iodide staining. Conclusions: The current study proves the anticancer potential of bio-synthesized AuNPs. Thus, synthesized AuNPs can be used for the treatment of human lung cancer cell (A549) and it can be exploited for drug delivery in future.
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Protective efficacy of Nigella sativa oil against the harmful effects of formaldehyde on rat testicular tissue p. 548
Hilal Irmak Sapmaz, Azibe Yıldız, Alaadin Polat, Nigar Vardı, Evren Köse, Kevser Tanbek, Songül Çuğlan
Objective: To explore the effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on the histopathological and biochemical changes that inhaled formaldehyde (FA) induces on the testicular tissue of rats. Methods: Thirty three adult male rats were separated into five groups as follows: C, the control group; 4FA group which received FA for 4 weeks; 13FA group which was given FA for 13 weeks; 4FA+NSO group which was administered FA plus NSO for 4 weeks; 13FA+NSO group which was treated with FA plus NSO for 13 weeks. FA was administered through inhalation for 8 h 5 days a week at a dose of 5 ppm in a special glass cage, and NSO was administered orally 1 mL/kg once daily. Rats were decapitated at the end of the experiment and testicular tissue specimens were harvested for histopathologic and biochemical assessment. Results: Compared to the C group, reduction was observed in the number of intact tubules and in the mean germinative epithelium thickness of the FA groups. Significant increase was observed in the number of intact tubules with the long-term (13 weeks) administration of NSO together with FA. Reduced glutathione peroxidase activity was found and oxidative stress index values were measured higher in the 4FA and 13FA groups versus the C group (P<0.05). Moreover, total antioxidant status levels decreased only in the 4FA group (P<0.05) while only the 13FA group significantly increased malondialdehyde levels and reduced catalase activities in comparison with the C group. In the 13FA+NSO group, malondialdehyde levels decreased however glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities increased compared to the 13FA group. Differences measured in total antioxidant status levels were found to be statistically significant only between the 4FA and the 4FA+NSO groups. Conclusions: NSO as an antioxidant should be used for a longer term to achieve protective efficacy both histopathologically and biochemically in the testicular tissue.
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Phenolics, fatty acids composition and biological activities of various extracts and fractions of Malaysian Aaptos aaptos p. 554
Zalilawati Mat Rashid, Abdul M Ali, Philippe Douzenel, Nathalie Bourgougnon, Khozirah Shaari, Yosie Andriani, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku Muhammad, Habsah Mohamad
Objective: To investigate phenolics, fatty acids composition and biological activities of various extracts and fractions of Malaysian Aaptos aaptos. Methods: Fatty acid methyl ester was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and total phenolics content by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Vero cells viability was evaluated using methyl thiazole tetrazolium and the inactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 by neutral red uptake assay. p-Hydroxybenzamide isolated by column chromatography was characterized by utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electron impact mass spectrometry. Results: The chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Aaptos aaptos produced higher portions of straight-chain saturated fatty acid, while hexane extract mainly consisted of unsaturated fatty acid. The five majors of fatty acid methyl ester were identified as behenic acid, cis-10-heptadecenoic acid and cis-10-pentadecenoic acids, palmitic acid and tricosanoic acid. In addition, among all organic extracts, chloroform extract inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1 while exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against normal Vero cells and also exhibited strong cytotoxic activity on HL-60, MCF-7, K562, CEM-SS and WEHI-3B cells. A phenolic compound, p-hydroxybenzamide was also isolated from the sponge. Conclusions: Aaptos aaptos could be a source to derive the potential antiviral and anticancer agents. However, further studies are needed to determine the mechanism involved in the process.
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