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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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November 2020
Volume 10 | Issue 11
Page Nos. 479-522

Online since Wednesday, September 9, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Justicia secunda Vahl leaf fraction protects against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in rats by alleviating oxidative stress and enhancing membrane-bound phosphatase activities p. 479
Esther O Aimofumeh, Godswill N Anyasor, Ijeoma Esiaba
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.294087  
Objective: To investigate the effect of Justicia secunda Vahl leaf fraction against acetaminophen-induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Methods: In vitro antioxidant assays were performed on Justicia secunda leaf fractions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical method was done. Experimental animals were orally administered with 2 g/kg b.wt. acetaminophen, 100-500 mg/kg b.wt. Justicia secunda ethyl acetate leaf fraction (JSELF), and 100 mg/kg b.wt. silymarin. Blood and liver were collected to measure hepatic, oxidative stress, and membrane-bound phosphatase markers. Results: JSELF had significantly (P<0.05) high total antioxidant capacity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. JSELF-treated animals had reduced plasma hepatic enzymes, serum C-reactive protein, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein while hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione levels were elevated compared with untreated control. Membrane-bound phosphatase activities were improved in JSELF-treated animals. GC-MS detected tentatively 7 antioxidants and 4 hepatoprotective compounds. Conclusions: JSELF could protect against oxidative stress and improve membrane-bound phosphatase activity in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage.
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Polygonatum kingianum rhizome extract alleviates collagen antibody-induced arthritis by modulating proinflammatory cytokine production in mice p. 490
Huyen Do Thi Thanh, Phuong Ngo Thi, Hien Nguyen Thi Thu, Nga Nguyen Thi, Hung Le Ngoc, Thao Do Thi, Ha Le Minh
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.294088  
Objective: To evaluate the anti-arthritic effects of Polygonatum kingianum rhizome extract using both in vitro and in vivo models. Methods: Lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with an ethanol extract of Polygonatum kingianum rhizomes at different concentrations to determine nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. For in vivo study, Polygonatum kingianum ethanol extract was further investigated for its antiinflammatory effect in a mouse model with collagen antibody-induced arthritis. Phytochemical study of Polygonatum kingianum ethanol extract was also performed. Results: Saponins (142 mg/g total yield) was the main component in the Polygonatum kingianum ethanol extract. 5α,8α-ergosterol peroxide, (E,E)-9-oxooctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid and 3-(2’-hydroxy-4’-methoxy-benzyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-8-methyl-chroman-4-one were isolated from the extract. Polygonatum kingianum ethanol extract exhibited potential anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting nitric oxide and PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The level of arthritis in mice with collagen antibody-induced arthritis was significantly reduced (P<0.01) after treatment with Polygonatum kingianum ethanol extract, particularly at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg body weight. Besides, the extract demonstrated the regulatory effects on serum tumor necrosis factor- alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 in treated mice. Conclusions: Polygonatum kingianum ethanol extract has beneficial effects on inflammatory cytokine regulation and PGE2 inhibition in an experimental mouse model with collagen antibody-induced arthritis. The phytochemical screening reveals that the saponin, as the main component, and sterols (daucosterol and 5α,8α-ergosterol peroxide) from Polygonatum kingianum ethanol extract may contribute to its promising in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities.
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Phytochemical profile, antioxidant activity and wound healing properties of Artemisia absinthium essential oil p. 496
A Benkhaled, A Boudjelal, E Napoli, F Baali, G Ruberto
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.294089  
Objective: To evaluate chemical compositions, antioxidant and wound healing properties of Algerian Artemisia absinthium essential oil. Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oil from Artemisia absinthium was analyzed by a combination of GC-FID and GC/MS. The antioxidant capacities including the total antioxidant capacity, DPPH and ABTS+• scavenging capacities were measured. The wound healing potential was assessed by the excision wound model of rats. The wounds were treated daily with an ointment prepared with two concentrations (5% and 10%) of Artemisia absinthium essential oil. The percentage of wound contraction was determined and wound healing was also evaluated by histological examination of the healed skin. Results: The main component of Artemisia absinthium essential oil was camphor (48%) followed by chamazulene (10%) that was responsible for the dark blue color of the oil. Artemisia absinthium essential oil exhibited moderate antioxidant activity compared with BHT and Trolox. All preparations showed significant effects on wound contraction and the ointment prepared with 10% of essential oil was effective as the reference drug Cicatryl. Conclusions: The essential oil of Artemisia absinthium shows moderate antioxidant activity. The 10% ointment enhances skin wound re-epithelialization and speeds up the healing process. The essential oil of Artemisia absinthium may be used as an alternative drug for wound healing.
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Achillea biebersteinii extracts suppress angiogenesis and enhance sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil of human colon cancer cells via the PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway in vitro p. 505
Mehmet Kadir Erdogan, Can Ali Ağca, Hakan Aşkın
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.294091  
Objective: To investigate the antiproliferative, anti-angiogenic, and apoptotic effects of extracts of Achillea biebersteinii (ABE) and combined treatments of ABE with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on HT-29 cells. Methods: The effects of ABE, 5-FU, and combined treatments on the viability of HT-29 cells were determined by 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Isobologram analysis was used to determine synergism between ABE and 5-FU. The apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects were determined by cell death detection and human vascular endothelial growth factor ELISA method, respectively. Transcriptional and translational expressions of p53, Bax, Bcl-2, p38 MAPK, Akt, PTEN, and mTOR were also evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis. Results: ABE decreased the viability of HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Combined treatment of hexane, chloroform, and methanol extracts of Achillea biebersteinii with 5-FU at IC50 doses decreased the cell viability to 26.0%, 19.1%, and 14.9%, respectively (P<0.001). Furthermore, ABE treatment alone and combination with 5-FU, induced apoptosis, significantly downregulated mTOR, Akt, Bcl-2 expression, upregulated p53, Bax, PTEN, p38 MAPK expression, and exhibited anti-angiogenetic effects. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that ABE shows synergism with 5-FU and inhibits the proliferation of HT-29 cells by inducing apoptosis and suppressing angiogenesis, which may provide biological evidence for further use of ABE in the treatment of colorectal cancer.
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Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Orostachys japonicus p. 516
Eun-Sun Hwang, Nhuan Do Thi
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.294092  
Objective: To determine the bioactive compounds of Orostachys japonicus (O. japonicus) (Maxim.) A. Berger extraction by different solvents (70% ethanol or water) and to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: Total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents in O. japonicus extract were measured. Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide radical-scavenging ability assays. Anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated by nitric oxide production, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 expression techniques. Results: Extraction with 70% ethanol yielded the highest total polyphenol (60.03 mg/g dry weight) and flavonoid (55.50 mg/g dry weight) contents. The total anthocyanin contents in 70% ethanol and water extracts were 57.25 and 91.71 mg/g dry weight, respectively. The 70% ethanol extract also showed stronger antioxidant activity than the water extract. Antioxidant activity and reducing power increased with the increasing concentration of O. japonicus extract. O. japonicus extract at 0-400 μg/mL did not affect the growth of RAW 264.7 cells, whereas dose-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-a, and interleukin-6 production was observed. Conclusions: O. japonicus inhibits oxidative and inflammatory reactions with potentially positive health-related effects.
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