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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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February 2019
Volume 9 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 47-90

Online since Friday, February 1, 2019

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REVIEW  

Melissa officinalis and rosmarinic acid in management of memory functions and Alzheimer disease p. 47
Mohaddese Mahboubi
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.250849  
Alzheimer disease (AD) as worldwide progressive neurodegenerative disease is prevalent disease among elderly population. Due to limitation in chemical drugs along with their adverse effects of these treatments, research for finding more effective natural drugs, is one of interesting subjects among the scientists. Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis) has a long history of use in treatment of nervous system diseases. This review article evaluates the potency of M. officinalis in treatment of AD by review of experimental and clinical documents on the efficacy, safety and its mechanisms of action in management of AD. The information is extracted from electronic resources (PubMed, Wiley, Springer and Science Direct), English and Persian scientific books. In spite of different scientific and non-scientific reports on the use of M. officinalis and its main component of rosmarinic acid in neurodegenerative diseases, there is only one clinical trial on the efficacy of M. officinalis ethanol extract in management of AD. Different mechanisms of action for M. officinalis, including inhibitory effects against amyloid beta, reactive oxygen species, and acetylcholine esterase, are involved. Larger clinical trials are recommended to confirm the efficacy and safety of M. officinalis extracts in treatment of AD patients.
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BASIC RESEARCH Top

Effects of the Syzygium aromaticum L. extract on antioxidation and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase in human dermal fibroblast p. 53
Da Eun Kim, Yeon Sil Hwang, Bo Yoon Chang, Dae Sung Kim, Hyoung Kwon Cho, Sung Yeon Kim
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.250850  
Objective: To investigate cosmetic potential of Syzygium aromaticum L. (S. aromaticum L.) and to determine its antioxidant and anti-wrinkling effects. Methods: Using high-performance liquid chromatography, eugenol component was quantitated. The antioxidant activity of S. aromaticum L. was analyzed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase like activities. To determine cell viability, elastase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity, human dermal fibroblasts (HS68) were treated with S. aromaticum L. The inhibitory effect of S. aromaticum L. on tumor necrosis factor alpha induced MMPs expression in HS68 was analyzed by realtime-PCR. Results: The eugenol content was confirmed in S. aromaticum L. S. aromaticum L. was observed to have high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase like activity. S. aromaticum L. had no cytotoxicity against the HS68 and dose-dependently increased elastase inhibition. Moreover, S. aromaticum L. significantly decreased MMP-1 content and inhibited gene levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-9. Conclusions: The findings suggest that S. aromaticum L. has great potential as a cosmeceutical ingredient with antioxidant and anti-wrinkling effects.
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In vitro evaluation of anti-acetylcholinesterase and free radical scavenging potential of leaf extracts of some selected medicinal plants p. 60
Annie Jessica Toppo, Sheela Chandra, Dhruv Jha, Papiya Mitra Mazumder
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.250856  
Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical present in various solvent extracts from leaves of Ocimum sanctum (L.), Swertia chirayita (L.), Butea monosperma (Lam.) and Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) as well as antioxidant and anticholinergic activities employing different in vitro models. Methods: Total phenol content of diethyl ether, chloroform and methanolic extracts obtained from leaves of different medicinal plants was determined by Folin-Ciocalteau's spectrophotometric method. Moreover, antioxidant and anticholinergic studies were conducted by four different in vitro methods which included diphenyl picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbezoline-6-sulphonic acid), reducing activity by ferrous reduced antioxidant power and anti-acetylcholinesterase assay, in order to ensure pharmacological potential of the plants. Results: The methanolic leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum showed the highest total phenol content which was (21.13±1.04) GAE/g DW and antioxidant activities compared to other plants with the IC50 value of 40.43 μg/mL in diphenyl picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and 53.5 μg/mL in 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbezoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay as well as metal ion reduced by (78.22±0.38) TE/g DW in ferrous reduced antioxidant power assay. The inhibition percentage of the anti-acetylcholinesterase assay was (94.22±0.26)%. Conclusions: The results of our current study show that Ocimum sanctum leaf is the most significant source of phytochemicals that possesses antioxidant and anticholinergic properties. However, further investigation on isolation and characterization of active compound which is responsible for the pharmacological potential is needed.
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Fruiting increases total content of flavonoids and antiproliferative effects of Cereus jamacaru D.C. cladodes in sarcoma 180 cells in vitro p. 66
Jean Carlos Vencioneck Dutra, Judá Ben-Hur de Oliveira, Vanessa Silva dos Santos, Paula Roberta Costalonga Pereira, Jean Moisés Ferreira, Maria do Carmo Pimentel Batitucci
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.250857  
Objective: To evaluate the influence of fruiting phenological stage on total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative effects of Cereus jamacaru (C. jamacaru) (mandacaru) cladodes and fruit. Methods: Fruit and cladodes at vegetative and fruiting stage of C. jamacaru were collected. The fruit was dissected and bark, pulp, and seeds were separated. Vegetative and fruiting cladodes, together with bark, pulp, and seeds were used to obtain five hydroalcoholic extracts. The extracts were investigated for total flavonoid content, using AlCl3 colorimetric method, antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging capacity and Fe2+ ion chelating activity, and in vitro antiproliferative effects (sarcoma 180 cells) by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Results: The extract of C. jamacaru cladodes at the fruiting stage showed higher flavonoid content compared to the other extracts. Seed extracts showed the highest antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays, and the extract of cladodes at vegetative stage showed better antioxidant activity in Fe2+ ion chelating activity. The extract of fruiting cladodes promoted higher antiproliferative effects compared to the other extracts. Conclusions: These findings suggest that fruiting increases the content of flavonoids and antiproliferative effects of C. jamacaru cladodes. Data reinforce the potential use of C. jamacaru cladodes and fruits as natural antioxidants and potent anticancer agent.
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In vivo hypoglycemic investigation, antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic potentials of Pereskia bleo Kunth. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats p. 73
Anis Najwa Abdul Rani, Roziahanim Mahmud, Norliyana Amran, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Nornisah Mohamed, Shanmugapriya Perumal
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.250858  
Objective: To elucidate the in vivo hypoglycemic capability, antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) leaves extracts and bioactive fraction. Methods: The various solvent extracts of Pereskia bleo were investigated for the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities using a relevant in vivo normal rat model and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model with glibenclamide and metformin utilized as positive controls. The effects of the most potent extract and its bioactive fraction on the insulin level, lipid profile and body weight of the diabetic rats were also analyzed. Results: All the extracts showed no hypoglycemic effect while petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous extracts demonstrated significant (P<0.05) reduction in blood sugar level in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Aqueous extract and aqueous fraction significantly (P<0.05) reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats as early as day 6 compared to the diabetic control as well as significantly restored the serum insulin of diabetic rats. Moreover, the aqueous extract and aqueous fraction disclosed a significant (P<0.05) reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein levels. An elevation in high-density lipoprotein as well as improved body weight loss of the diabetic rats were also observed. Conclusions: In summary, Pereskia bleo appears effective in the management of diabetes and correlated impairments arising from high blood sugar level. Further studies will possibly bring about the discovery of effective and secure plant derived antidiabetic drugs.
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Effects of Brassica oleracea extract on impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis in high-fat diet-induced obese mice p. 80
Urarat Nanna, Jarinyaporn Naowaboot, Linda Chularojmontri, Pholawat Tingpej, Suvara Wattanapitayakul
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.250859  
Objective: To examine the effect of Brassica oleracea extract (BO) on impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Methods: Obesity of ICR mice was induced by feeding a HFD (45 kcal% lard fat) for 16 weeks. During the last 8 weeks of study period, obese mice were additionally administered with BO (100 and 200 mg/kg/day). The metabolic parameters were determined. The gene expressions of hepatic lipogenesis were also studied. Results: After 8 weeks of treatment, BO (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly reduced hyperglycemia and improved insulin sensitivity (P < 0.05). The serum lipid (total cholesterol, triglyceride, and non-esterified fatty acid) and hepatic triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid were decreased (P < 0.05). The levels of insulin and leptin in serum were also decreased (P < 0.05). Moreover, the expressions of hepatic lipogenic genes including sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase were decreased by BO treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that BO is a new therapeutic agent for improving the homeostasis of glucose and lipid in HFD-induced obese mice probably by suppression of lipogenic genes in liver tissue.
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Significance of IL-1Ra and IL-6 gene variants in Turkish patients with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever p. 85
Umut Safiye Say Coskun, Ayse Feyda Nursal, Ferdi Gunes, Aydın Rustemoglu, Abdullah Yayli, Nevin Karakus, Huseyin Sener Barut, Serbulent Yigit
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.250864  
Objective: To investigate the association between IL-1Ra variable number of tandem repeat (rs2234663), IL-6 -597GA (rs1800797), IL-6 -572GC (rs1800796) and the risk of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in the Turkish patients. Methods: This study included 50 patients infected with CCHF and 50 healthy controls. These variants were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and/or restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results: The distribution of the IL-6 -572GC genotypes and alleles varied significantly between the patients and the controls. The subjects carrying IL-6 -572GC GG genotype and G allele had increased risk of developing CCHF compared to the control group (P=0.006, P=0.014, respectively). IL-6 -572GC GC genotype was higher in the controls than the patients (P=0.006). For the triple genotype combinations, the 1/2-GC-GG genotype combination was detected more frequently in the control group than CCHF patients (P=0.016). IL-6 (-572/-597) GG-GG genotype was significantly higher in the patient group (P=0.015), while the GC-GG genotype was significantly lower in the patient group (P=0.005). Additionally, the G-G haplotype was significantly higher in the patient group (P=0.042), whereas C-G was found to be significantly lower in the patients than the control group (P=0.037). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest the IL-6 -572GC variant might be genetic markers of sensitivity to CCHF in the Turkish population and may facilitate greater protection against the disease.
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