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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January 2018
Volume 8 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-84

Online since Friday, December 22, 2017

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EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION  

Prevalence of coronavirus from diarrheic calves in the Republic of Korea p. 1
Jinho Park, Du-Gyeong Han, SuHee Kim, Jeong-Byoung Chae, Joon-Seok Chae, Do-Hyeon Yu, Kyoung-Seong Choi
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221037  
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine rotavirus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus in the feces of normal and diarrheic Korean native calves aged 1-81 days between April and October of 2016 in the Republic of Korea. Methods: Samples were obtained from 50 normal and 93 diarrheic (56 semi-formed, 28 loose, and 9 watery feces) calves in six different regions of northern and southern Korea. These fecal samples were tested for BCoV, bovine rotavirus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus by RT-PCR. Results: Among the three pathogens examined, infection with BCoV was especially prominent in relation to diarrhea among calves aged 1-21 days [odds ratio (OR)=9.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-78.9; P=0.02). Infection with BCoV alone (OR=2.9; 95% CI: 1.1-7.6; P=0.03) or co-infection of BCoV with bovine viral diarrhea virus (OR=3.6; 95% CI: 1.0-12.4; P=0.04) was significantly associated with the development of loose feces. Grazing and colostrum intake strongly reduced the occurrence of diarrhea as compared to housed calves (OR=0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.4; P=0.00) and calves that had not been fed colostrum (OR=0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.7; P=0.02), respectively. Conclusions: The present study suggests that BCoV is involved in calf diarrhea in the Republic of Korea. Therefore, grazing and colostrum intake is recommended for preventing and controlling calf diarrhea caused by BCoV.
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CLINICAL RESEARCH Top

Effective Aeromonas specific monoclonal antibody for immunodiagnosis p. 7
Yuvadee Mahakunkijcharoen, Chakrit Hirunpetcharat, Sunisa Malijunbua, Watcharamat Muangkaew, Suporn Paksanont
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221128  
Objective: To identify the monoclonal antibody specific to Aeromonas spp., a Gram negative bacteria causing gastroenteritis and wound infection. Methods: The monoclone, namely 88F2-3F4, was produced from hybridoma technology. The specificity of antibody secreted from 88F2-3F4 was tested against other Gram negative bacteria frequently found in gastrointestinal tract. Then the antibody was used for searching Aeromonas antigens in artificial seeded rectal swab cultures by dot-blot enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: 88F2-3F4 produced an antibody that recognized an antigen with a molecular mass of 8.5 kDa in all 123 isolates of the seven Aeromonas species tested, but recognized no epitope of any other Gram-negative bacterium typically found in the gastrointestinal tract. A dot-blot enzyme linked immunosorbent assay based on this antibody showed 86.49% sensitivity and 92.13% specificity. Conclusions: 88F2-3F4 monoclonal antibody could react with all Aeromonas isolates, but not other Gram negative bacteria, therefore it should be a useful tool for the detection of Aeromonas antigen in clinical and environmental samples.
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Pharmacodynamic profiling of optimal sulbactam regimens against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii for critically ill patients p. 14
Weerayuth Saelim, Wichai Santimaleeworagun, Sudaluck Thunyaharn, Dhitiwat Changpradub, Piraporn Juntanawiwat
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221129  
Objective: To study the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sulbactam against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-AB) and to determine the dosage regimens reaching target time of free drug concentration remaining above the MIC (fT>MIC). Methods: Clinical isolates of CR-AB from patients admitted to Phramongkutklao Hospital, Thailand from January 2014 to December 2015 were obtained. The MIC of sulbactam for each CR-AB isolate was determined using the agar dilution method. Each sulbactam regimen was simulated using the Monte Carlo technique to calculate the probability of target attainment (PTA) and the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) in critically ill patients. PTA was defined by how likely a specific drug dose was to reach 40% and 60% fT>MIC. The CFR was the probability of drug dose covering the MIC range of CR-AB. Dosing regimens reaching above 80% of PTA and CFR, were considered as the optimal dosage for documented and empirical therapy, respectively. Results: A total of 118 CR-AB isolates were included in the study. The percentile at the fiftieth and ninetieth MIC of sulbactam were 64 and 192 μg/mL, respectively. For a MIC of sulbactam of 4 μg/mL, all dosage regimens achieved PTA target. However, only a sulbactam dosage of 12 g intravenous daily using 2-4 h infusion or continuous infusion that covered for isolates with a sulbactam MIC of 96 μg/mL, met the PTA or CFR targets. Conclusions: The MIC of sulbactam against CR-AB is quite high. The sulbactam dose of 12 g/day using prolonged infusion was required to achieve the target fT>MIC for CR-AB treatment.
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BASIC RESEARCH Top

Efficiency of combining pomegranate juice with low-doses of cisplatin and taxotere on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells p. 19
Nasser Mohamad, Hijazi Akram, Sayed Ahmad Bouchra, Jamal Eddine Zeinab, Ibrahim Sajida, Rammal Hassan, Al Rekaby Abd-El-Ameer, Nasser Mohammed
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221130  
Objective: To test the coalescence effect of two chemotherapy drugs at low effective dose (cisplatin and taxotere) combined with pomegranate juice on A549 cancer cells. Methods: Infrared spectroscopy method is a qualitative test that was performed to ensure the existence of the phytochemicals providing the antioxidant activity through the presence of the hydroxyl group (-OH). The viability of A549 cell line and normal MCs was tested using the neutral red uptake, Clonogenic survival, XTT and Cell migration assays. Results: Our results showed that this combination firstly led to a greater decrease in the viability of cells comparing to those treated with chemotherapy drugs alone, and secondly led to a significant reduction in cell migration. Conclusions: These data suggest a synergistic effect between the pomegranate and cisplatin which makes probably this combination a powerful option for treating lung adenocarcinoma and in parallel minimizing the systemic side effects.
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Correlation of phytochemical content with antioxidant potential of various sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) in West Java, Indonesia p. 25
Irda Fidrianny, Hendy Suhendy, Muhamad Insanu
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221131  
Objective: To determine antioxidant activity and phytochemical content from various tubers extracts of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and to explore the correlation of phytochemical content with their antioxidant activities. Methods: Antioxidant activities were tested using DPPH and FRAP assays. Total phenolic was calculated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoid content by Chang’s method and correlation with their antioxidant activities were analyzed by Pearson’s method. Results: PO2 showed highest antioxidant activity, which had the lowest IC50 DPPH (10.54 μg/mL) and the lowest EC50 FRAP (11.14 μg/mL). PO2 showed the highest total phenolic (11.91 g GAE/100 g) and total flavonoid content (17.83 g QE/100 g). There were significantly negative correlation between total phenolic content and flavonoid content in sample PO with their IC50 DPPH and EC50 FRAP. IC50 DPPH of sample PP and PO showed significantly positive correlation with their EC50 FRAP. Conclusions: Result of DPPH method shows that all different ethyl acetate and ethanolic tubers extracts of four varieties of sweet potato are classified as strong and very strong antioxidant. Result of DPPH and FRAP methods indicates that phenolic and flavonoid compounds in sample PO contributes together to antioxidant activities. Antioxidant activities of sample PP and PO by DPPH method are linear to FRAP method.
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Larvicidal activity of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus bacteria against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus p. 31
Apichat Vitta, Punnawat Thimpoo, Wipanee Meesil, Thatcha Yimthin, Chamaiporn Fukruksa, Raxsina Polseela, Bandid Mangkit, Sarunporn Tandhavanant, Aunchalee Thanwisai
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221134  
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of symbiotic bacteria, Xenorhabdus indica, Xenorhabdus stockiae, Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. akhurstii and Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. hainanensis as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Methods: Larvae (L3-L4) of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were given 2 mL of a suspension 107-108 CFU/mL of each symbiotic bacterium. Distilled water and Escherichia coli ATCC® 25922 were used as the control. The mortality rate of the larval mosquitoes was observed at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The experiment was performed in triplicates. Results: The larvae of both Aedes species started to die at 24 h exposure. Aedes aegypti showed the highest mortality rate (87%-99%), 96 h after exposure to Xenorhabdus stockiae (bNBP22.2_TH). The mortality rate of Aedes albopictus was between 82% and 96% at 96 h after exposure to Xenorhabdus indica (bKK26.2_TH). Low effectiveness of distilled water and Escherichia coli ATCC® 25922 were observed in both Aedes larvae, with a mortality rate of 2% to 12%. Conclusions: The study confirms the oral toxicity of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus bacteria against Aedes spp. Xenorhabdus stockiae and Xenorhabdus indica may be an alternative agent for control Aedes spp. This is basic information for further study on the mechanism of action on Aedes larvae or application to control mosquito larvae in the community.
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Proximate composition, nutritional values and phytochemical screening of Piper retrofractum vahl. fruits p. 37
Nurul Jadid, Byan Arasyi Arraniry, Dewi Hidayati, Kristanti Indah Purwani, Wiwi Wikanta, Sylviana Rosyda Hartanti, Rizka Yuanita Rachman
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221136  
Objective: To investigate the proximate and mineral composition of the Piper retrofractum (P. retrofractum) vahl. Fruit and to evaluate its total alkaloids, phenol and flavonoid. Methods: The proximate composition of P. retrofractum fruit was ananlyzed using standard protocols according to Indonesian Standard and Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Meanwhile, mineral composition of the fruit was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Phytochemical screening and quantification were performed using standard protocols according to Harborn and spectrophotometric methods. Results: The results showed that P. retrofractum fruit contained carbohydrate (63.4%), crude protein (11.4%), total ash (4.29%), dietary fiber (28.8%) and total fat (2.97%). The fruit also contained calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphor, potassium, sodium and zinc in different concentrations. Additionally, quinone, sterol, glycosides and alkaloid were detected in both n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. Moreover, tannin was presented also in ethylacetate and methanol extracts. Meanwhile, methanol extract contained sterol, glycosides, flavones, tannin and alkaloid. The results also revealed that methanol extract of the fruit contained highest phenol compared to other extract. Finally, small quantity of flavonoid (0.060 0%±0.000 2%) was observed. Conclusions: The overall results show that P. retrofractum contains potential nutritional and phytochemicals values, which support their function for pharmaceutical purposes.
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Identification of commonly regulated genes in HPV18- and HPV16-infected cervical cancer cells treated with the curcumin analogue 1,5-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one p. 44
Felicia Paulraj, Faridah Abas, Nordin H Lajis, Iekhsan Othman, Sharifah Syed Hassan, Rakesh Naidu
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221137  
Objective: To identify commonly regulated genes in HPV-infected HeLa and CaSki cervical cancer cells treated with curcumin analogue 1,5-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one (MS17) and to explore potential mechanisms that underlie its cytotoxic, anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity. Methods: HeLa and CaSki cells were treated with 2 × EC50 and 3 × EC50 doses of MS17 for 24 h and the RNA extracts were subjected to one-colour microarray-based gene expression profiling. Pair-wise significant genes (false discovery rate-corrected, P<0.05) were analysed for fold change (FC) compared to control samples. Differentially expressed genes with FC⩾2.0 (up-regulated; FC⩾2.0 and down-regulated; FC⩽-2.0) compared to the control samples were filtered through and analysed to create a global gene expression profile. Mutually regulated genes were ranked by FC and categorised by gene ontology. Results: Our data indicated dose-dependent regulation by MS17 and identified top 20 mutually up- and down-regulated genes each in HeLa and CaSki cells. Amongst these 17 were commonly regulated in both cell lines. These include the up-regulation of CCL26, DEFB103B, IL1RL1, LY96, GCNT3, MMP10, MMP3, GADD45G and HSPA6, and the down-regulation of TENM2, NEBL, KIFC1, CTDSP1, IGFBP5, LTBP1, NREP and MXD3. These genes were associated with key biological functions that were proposed to mediate the anticancer activity of MS17 in cervical cancer cells such as immune response, metabolic processes, proteolysis, programmed cell death, unfolded protein response, cell adhesion, cytoskeletal organisation, phosphatase activity, signal transduction and transcription regulator activity. Conclusions: Identification of seventeen common genes modulated by MS17 could be used as potential therapeutic targets in both cervical cancer cell lines and the findings of this study could be used to present an insight into the potential antitumor activity of MS17 in cervical cancer.
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Oxidative stress mitigation, kinetics of carbohydrate-enzymes inhibition and cytotoxic effects of flavonoids-rich leaf extract of Gazania krebsiana (Less.): An in vitro evaluation p. 52
Fatai Oladunni Balogun, Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221138  
Objective: To investigate the free radical scavenging, antidiabetic, kinetics of enzyme inhibition and cytotoxic potentials of flavonoid-rich extract of Gazania krebsiana leaves using standard methods. Methods: Antioxidant activity of the flavonoids was investigated at scavenging free radicals such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical, reducing capabilities, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6) sulphonic acid as well as metal chelating capability at different concentrations (125-1 000 μg/mL) while the antidiabetic activity was evaluated via the inhibition and kinetics of carbohydrate digestive enzymes including α-amylase, α-glucosidase, sucrase and maltase. Brine shrimp lethality assay was also employed to examine the cytotoxic effects at various concentrations (125-2 000 μg/mL). Results: The study showed the best antioxidant activity in 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6) sulphonic acid, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide and metal chelating with IC50 values of (1 089.00±19.29), (719.40±5.35), (633.10±5.31), (1 116.00±22.92) μg/mL, respectively; as compared with butylated hydroxyl anisole (standard) with IC50 of 1 166, 747, 639 and 1 363 μg/mL, respectively. Similarly, strong inhibition of α-glucosidase as well as moderate inhibition of sucrase and maltase enzyme activities which were significantly (P<0.05) better than acarbose were also observed in the study; though acarbose activity against α-amylase was better than the extract. The kinetics or mode of inhibition of α-amylase by the extract revealed an uncompetitive inhibition, competitive for α-glucosidase and non-competitive inhibitions for both sucrase and maltase, while the result of the lethality assay showed a potent cytotoxic effect with LC50 value of 359 μg/mL. Conclusions: The results obtained from this study are suggestive of the antioxidative, antidiabetic and cytotoxic potentials of flavonoid-rich extract of Gazania krebsiana.
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Protective effect of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) against neurotoxicity induced by aluminum chloride in rats p. 59
Mohamed E Elhadidy, Hussein G Sawie, Nagwa A Meguid, Yasser A Khadrawy
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221139  
Objective: To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of ashwagandha extract against aluminum chloride-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Methods: Rats were divided into control, aluminum-intoxicated rats treated daily with aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) (100 mg/kg, orally) for 30 d and aluminum-intoxicated animals protected by receiving daily ashwagandha extract (200 mg/kg, orally) one hour before AlCl3 administration for 30 d. Levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. In addition, the activities of Na+, K+, ATPase and acetylcholinesterase were determined in the three studied brain regions. Results: Aluminum increased the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum and decreased the reduced glutathione level in the hippocampus and striatum. In rats protected with ashwagandha extract, non significant changes were observed in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and reduced glutathione. In addition, ashwagandha extracts prevented the increased activity of acetylcholinesterase and Na+, K+, ATPase induced by AlCl3 in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The present findings also showed that the significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-α induced by AlCl3 in the cortex and hippocampus was prevented by ashwagandha extract. Conclusions: The present results suggest that ashwagandha extract possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects against aluminum neurotoxicity. In addition, ashwagandha extract could prevent the decline in cholinergic activity by maintaining normal acetylcholinesterase activity. The later effect could recommend the use of ashwagandha as a memory enhancer.
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Larvicidal activity of Neem oil and three plant essential oils from Senegal against Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper, 1789) p. 67
Saliou Ngom, Raimundo Cabrera Perez, Ma Anta Mbow, Rokhaya Fall, Saliou Niassy, Andreea Cosoveanu, Serigne Mbacké Diop, El Hadji Barka Ndiaye, Moussoukhoye Diop, Georges Lognay
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221140  
Objective: To evaluate the insecticide, larvicidal and repellent activity of the essential oils from Callistemon viminalis, Melaleuca leucadendron, and Hyptis suaveolens against Chrysodeixis chalcites and to compare it with neem oil (Azadirachta indica). Methods: The essential oils of the leaves of these aromatiques plants were extracted by steam distillation and contacts tests were carried out. Results: Essential oils in ethanol from Callistemon viminalis showed a higher biological activity than the neem with 100% larval mortality at the concentration of 2 μg/mL for 6 h, 100% and 90% in ethanol from Melaleuca leucadendron and Hyptis suaveolens, respectively at the concentration of 4 μg/mL for 24 h. By inhalation, the essential oils from Melaleuca leucadendron and of Hyptis suaveolens were more effective with mortality rates of larvae 100% and 50% respectively at 2 μg/L air applied after 24 h. Nevertheless, the neem has shown to be a repulsive plant and anti-nutritional plant. A significant difference in the percentages of consumption between leaves treated with neem oil and the control samples was observed (Newman-Keuls test) except for Melaleuca leucadendron. Conclusions: The results of the study highlight remarkable biocide, properties of tested extracts, which provides important opportunities for the development of biopesticides.
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Ethnobotanical survey of antimalarial plants in Awash-Fentale District of Afar Region of Ethiopia and in vivo evaluation of selected ones against Plasmodium berghei p. 73
Nega Alelign, Mirutse Giday, Tilahun Teklehaymanot, Abebe Animut
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221141  
Objective: To document plants used in traditional treatment of malaria in the Awash-Fentale District, the Afar Region of Ethiopia, and to evaluate antimalarial activity of selected ones against Plasmodium berghei in mice. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with purposively selected informants in the District to gather information on plants used in the traditional treatment of malaria. Standard procedures were used to investigate acute toxicity and a four-day suppressive effect of crude aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of the two most frequently cited plants [Aloe trichosantha (A. trichosantha) and Cadaba rotundifolia (C. rotundifolia)] against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. Results: The informants cited a total of 17 plants used in the traditional treatment of malaria in Awash-Fentale District. Plant parts were prepared as infusions or decoctions. Leaf was the most commonly cited (44%) plant part, followed by stem (22%). Shrubs were the most frequently cited (63%) medicine source followed by trees (21%). Of the 17 plants, C. rotundifolia and A. trichosantha were the most frequently mentioned plants in the district. Ethanol extracts of the leaves of C. rotundifolia and A. trichosantha suppressed P. berghei parasitaemia significantly accounting for 53.73% and 49.07%, respectively at 900 mg/kg. The plants were found to be non-toxic up to a dose of 1 500 mg/kg. Conclusions: Seventeen plant species were reported to be used for treatment of malaria in the Awash Fentale Distinct, among which A. trichosantha and C. rotundifolia were the most preferred ones. P. berghei suppressive activity of these plants may partly explain their common use in the community.
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REVIEW Top

A comprehensive review on anti-diabetic property of rice bran p. 79
Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Periyanaina Kesika, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut
DOI:10.4103/2221-1691.221142  
Rice bran (RB) is one of the nutrient-rich agricultural byproducts. It is a composite of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, fibers, minerals, and trace elements such as phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and manganese. The extraction and purification process influences the quality and quantity of rice bran oil, which is rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and unsaturated fatty acids. The bioactive components of RB have been reported for exhibiting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, anti-cancer, anti-colitis, and antidiabetic properties. In vitro and in vivo studies, and clinical trials in human volunteers revealed the anti-hyperglycemic activity of RB derived compounds. An updated comprehensive review on the antidiabetic property of RB and its derivative is required to appraise the current knowledge in the particular field. Thus, the present paper covered the composition and bioactivities of RB, and influence of extraction methods on the biological property of rice bran oil and rice bran extract. And the current review also focused on the reported anti-hyperglycemia activity of rice bran derivatives, and its probable mechanism.
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