Chemical composition, antiparasitic and cytotoxic activities of aqueous extracts of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart.
Jacqueline Cosmo Andrade1, Ana Raquel Pereira da Silva2, Antônia Thassya Lucas dos Santos2, Maria Audilene Freitas2, Yedda Maria Lobo Soares de Matos2, Maria Flaviana Bezerra Morais Braga2, Camila Fonseca Bezerra2, Maria Isabeli Pereira Gonçalo3, Maria Celeste Vega Gomez4, Míriam Rolóm4, Cathia Coronel4, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos Ribeiro5, Edy Sousa de Brito5, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho2
1 Microbiology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Biological Chemistry Department, Regional University of Cariri - URCA, Crato (CE); Bioassays Laboratory - LABIO, Federal University of Cariri - UFCA, Brejo Santo University campus (CE), Brazil
2 Microbiology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Biological Chemistry Department, Regional University of Cariri - URCA, Crato (CE), Brazil
3 Bioassays Laboratory - LABIO, Federal University of Cariri - UFCA, Brejo Santo University campus (CE), Brazil
4 Center for the Development of Scientific Research, Moises Bertoni Foundation/Diaz Gill Laboratories, Asuncion, Paraguay
5 Natural Products Chemistry Multiuser Laboratory LMQPN, Embrapa Tropical Agroindustry, Fortaleza (CE), Brazil
Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Biological Chemistry Department, Regional University of Cariri - URCA, Crato-CE
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Objective: To compare the in vitro antiparasitic activity of aqueous extracts from Ziziphus joazeiro leaves and stem bark against Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis, and Leishmania infantum, as well as to evaluate its cytotoxicity in mammalian cells, in addition to identifying the chemical composition of the extracts.
Methods: Ziziphus joazeiro leaf and stem bark aqueous extracts were prepared by cold extraction maceration and subjected to ultra-efficient liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole/time of flight system. The susceptibility assays used Trypanosoma cruzi CL-B5 strains and promastigote forms of Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum for antiparasitic activity of the extracts. Moreover, mammalian fibroblasts NCTC clone 929 were used for cytotoxicity analysis.
Results: Terpenoid compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acid were identified in extracts. The stem bark aqueous extracts presented more significant results in terms of antiparasitic activity compared with the leaf aqueous extracts, especially against Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum promastigote forms with an IC50 < 500 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity evaluation showed moderate toxicity of the stem bark aqueous extracts, which is relevant information for the rational use of this plant part since it is widely used by the population.
Conclusions: These preliminary results may contribute to the formulation of new therapeutic agents against this group of neglected diseases, so further investigations are required to delineate the mechanisms of action mainly of the aqueous extract of stem bark of Ziziphus joazeiro.