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BASIC RESEARCH
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 176-180

Antimalarial activities of butanol and ethylacetate fractions of Combretum nigricans leaf


1 Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
2 Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
3 Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology & Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
4 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
5 Department of Plant Science & Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Enegide Chinedu
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.256731

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Objective: To evaluate the antimalarial activity of the ethylacetate and butanol fractions of Combretum nigricans (C. nigricans) leaf extract in mice. Methods: C. nigricans solvent (butanol and ethylacetate) fractions were screened for their phytochemical constituents using standard procedures illustrated by Harborne and Evans. The Peters’ 4-day suppressive test against early malaria infection, Rane’s curative test against established malaria and prophylactic test for residual activity were employed for evaluating the antimalarial potential in mice. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, and flavonoids in both fractions at different intensity. Both fractions exhibited significant antimalarial activity in all test models (P<0.05). The ethylacetate fraction of C. nigricans had better chemosuppressive and curative effects compared to the butanol fraction, which however, elicited a better chemoprophylactic effect. The chemosuppressive effect of C. nigricans ethylacetate fraction (200-800 mg/kg) was 77.6%, 69.1% and 86.1%; curative effect was 62.3%, 71.3% and 72.4%; while the chemoprophylactic activity was 32.1%, 48.6% and 61.2% respectively. C. nigricans butanol fraction (200-800 mg/kg) had 40.3%, 54.1% and 69.1% chemosuppression; 26.2%, 36.9% and 34.5% curative effect; and 48.4%, 70.0% and 87.4% chemoprophylaxis. Conclusions: Both solvent fractions of C. nigricans possess antimalarial activity, and may be useful at different stages of malaria therapy.


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